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Rock Island Public Library 
^EFglfeNbE BOOK 

Accession No 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 


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Democrat Print, Jerseyville, 111. 

Copyright, 1934 

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Calhoun County is one of the few counties of the state not yet 
represented by a volume recounting its history. In 1876, John Lammy, 
a teacher and county official, delivered a speech at the Centennial 
celebration in Hardin. This speech was printed and it is sometimes 
referred to as the "Lammy History of Calhoun County". But it was 
only a thousand words in length and failed even to mention many of 
the important phases of the county's history. 

The present account is written to give the general reader of the 
student of history a broad outline of the county's development. No 
attempt has been made to exhaust any phase of the subject. Some 
events are explained from the standpoint of cause and effect, while 
| others are merely stated. But it is the hope of the writer that this 
account will serve as a basis for more complete studies by students 
of Calhoun history. 

The writer wishes to thank the many teachers, ministers, editors, 
and others who sent information and material on many different 


Hardin, Illinois 



Chapter Page 

I. The Indians, the First Inhabitants 5 

II. Early Explorers 9 

III. Early Settlers 11 

IV. The Formation of Calhoun County 14 

V. Early Villages and Communities 18 

VI. Population and Population Changes 28 

VII. History of Calhoun Schools 31 

VIII. History of Calhoun Churches 49 

IX. Transportation and Industries 67 

X. Social Life TS 

XI. Calhoun County in Politics 76 

XII. 1913-1933 83 

Appendix. Important Dates in Early Calhoun History 88 



The Indians, The First Inhabitants 


The Illinois Confederation of Indians was divided into five tribes. 
They were the Peorias, living near the present site of Peoria; the 
Cahokias and the Tarmarias, living abotat Cahokia; the Kaskaskias 
near Kaskaskia, and the Mitchagamies near the Great Lakes. 

The area of the original country of the Illinois Indians included 
most of the territory now within the State of Illinois. But this terri- 
tory was continually reduced by wars with the Sioux and Dakota 
Indians from west of the Mississippi River, and with the Sacs, Foxes, 
and the Kiekapoos who lived north of the Illinois Confederation. From 
the east came the Iroquois, who were the fiercest of all of the Indian 
warriors. The power of the Illinois Indians was decreasing when the 
French first came to Illinois. 


The raids of the Iroquois are the most important from the stand- 
point of Calhoun history because they effected the Peoria Indians, and 
because of the massacres that occurred in this county. Some years 
before 1680, the Iroquois sent an expedition against the Illinois Indians 
and forced them to flee from their territory. The Iroquois returned to 
their home in the east and the Illinois tribes returned to their villagees 
along the Illinois River. 

In 1680, the Iroquois returned and made another attack upon the 
Illinois tribes and this time the results were very disastrous to the 
Illinois Indians. One of the best accounts of this attack is told by 
LaSalle, who was passing throligh the Illinois country in search of his 
lieutenant, Tonti. As LaSalle and his companions neared Starved Rock 
they found everything in ruins. Instead of the flourishing village 
LaSalle says: 

"Their town had vanished and the meadow was black with fire. 
Parts of bodies and charred buildings remained. Even the graves had 
been robbed, and the bodies flung from the scaffolds, where they had 
been placed." 



As LaSall'e continued down the river, he found six places where 
the Illinois Indians had camped, and on the opposite side of the river, 
six places where the Iroquois had also camped. He realized that the 
Illinois Indians were fleeing and were being pursued by their old 
enemies. When he neared the mouth of the Illinois River, he found 
that part of the Illinois tribe bad been overtaken. Parkman, the his- 
torian, gives us the following description which he wrote after read- 
ing LaSalle's diary: 

"As the French drew near to the mouth of the Illinois, they saw 
a meadow to the right, and, on the fartherest verge, several human 
figures erect, yet motionless. They landed and cautiously examined 
the place. The long grass was trampled down and all around were 
strewn the relics of the hideous orgies which formed the ordinary 
sequel of an Iroquois victory. The figures they had seen were the half 
consumed bodies of women still bound to the stakes where they had 
been tortured. Other sights there were, too revolting for record. All 
the remains were of women -and children; the men, it seems, had fled, 
and left them to their fate. The French descended the river and soon 
came to the mouth." 

This massacre, the date of which was the last week of November, 
1680, took place in the southern part of the county, about a mile above 
the present site of the Deer Plain ferry, at a place now known as 
Marshall's Landing. Many skulls, parts of skeletons, and weapons 
have been found near this spot in the last seventy-five years by far- 
mers who were plowing the land. 

M. D'uChesne-au, a Canadian official, tells about this flight of the 
Illinois Indians in an account which he wrote in December, 1681. He 
says that about 1200 men, women, and children were killed by the 
Iroquois on this expedition, and that the survivors of the Illinois 
tribes crossed the Mississippi River. 

THE CENSUS OF 1736 AND 1800 
A part of the Illinois tribes returned to Illinois after their defeat 
at the hands of the Iroquois. They were not bothered again by the 
Troquois, but the Indians of the north made war upon them year after 
year. When the French government took a census of the tribes of 
the west, in 1736, they found that the Illinois tribes had been reduced 
to about 600 warriors. 

In an official letter to the Secretary of War, of date of March 22, 
1814, General William Henry Harrison says: 

"When I was appointed Governor of the Indiana Territory (1800), 
these once powerful tribes were reduced to 30 warriors, of whom 25 
were of the Kaskaskias, 4 of the Peorias, and a single Metchigamian." 



Thus we can see there were few Indians in the western part of 
Illinois when the first settlers arrived. One early Calhoun settler 
t*aid, "The Indians were as thick as blackberries," but that was prob- 
ably an exaggeration. There is little evidence to show that more than 
a few hundred Indians ever lived in this county at any one time. 

There are many Indiaji mounds in different parts of the county 
and in recent years these have been opened and sketetons and weapons 
taken from them. B'ut these mounds do not prove that there was a 
large permanent Indian population since they might have been built 
over a period of several hundred years. 

The early explorers said that the region that is now a part of 
Calhoun County was supplied with wild g-ame in great abundance, and 
there is the possibility that many Indians that lived in the prairie 
section of the state came to this region to hunt and fish at certain 
seasons of the year, but were not permanent residents. We can be 
safe in saying that there were few, if -any, Indians living in the county 
when the first white setters arrived. Those that were seen by the 
settlers were just bands that were pa.ssing thro'ugh the country on 
hunting expeditions or Indians who came to get supplies from the 
white traders. 

There are just two cases of the Indians bothering the first 
settlers of the county. One of these cases was the kidnapping of a 
three year old son of Jacob Pruden. Mr. Pruden settled in the county 
in 1829 near the old Seuier place, about five miles below the present 
site of Hardin. The boy v/as recaptured from the Indians five days 
after he had been taken, and had not been harmed. 

Another case was the kidnapping of Joe DeGerlia, the son of 
Antoine DeGerlia, Sr., the first settler in the "French Hollow*' neigh- 
borhood. Mr. DeGerlia had not yet finished building his home, when 
his small son, Joe, was taken. Nearly thirty years Later a man who 
was acquainted with the history of the DeGerlia family was traveling 
among the tribes of the Indian Territory, and there he heard the story 
of a white boy that had been kidnapped many years before from a pla.ce 
not far from where the Illinois River flows into the Mississippi. He 
investigated the story and found that the white boy was Joe DeGerlia 
of the Calhoun family. Joe had been ta.ught the Indian language and 
had grown to manhood among the remnants of the tribe that had 
taken him awa.v with thpm on their way to the southwest. Joe re- 
turned to Calhoun, married, and lived in the "French Hollow" neigh- 
borhood for a number of years. But he was never satisfied in the 
county and finally he took his family and returned +n the Indian 
Territory. He spent the remainder of his life there and his descend- 
ants are living in that section of the country today. 



In 1813 the Indian tribes of the northern part of the state went 
on the war rath and some of the fighting was done in the southern 
part of Calhoun. The fighting was between the Indians who came 
down the Mississippi River and soldiers from the fort which was built 
in Missouri, opposite the present site of West Point ferry, in Rich- 
woods precinct. In the summer of 1813 from sixty to eighty Indians 
appeared near this place and a battle took place between them and 
thirteen soldiers who had crossed the river from the fort. Twelve 
of the soldiers were killed, the only survivor being John Shaw who 
later became a prominent official in Calhoun Colunty. 

In the summer of 1814, the Indians again appeared in that neigh- 
borhood and fought with the soldiers and settlers from the Missouri 
side of the river. On this expedition the Indians were accompanied by 
Black Hawk, who later became famous in an Indian war in the north- 
ern part of the state. We have no record of these Indians bothering 
any of the settlers in the lower part of the county. Their whole 
attention seemed to have been directed a,gainst the soldiers and set- 
tlers in Missouri. 

Although most of the Illinois Indians had moved from the terri- 
tory between the Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers before 1800, they 
still had a claim to the land. In 1803 part of the tribes ceded their 
rights to the government, but it was not until 1816 tha,t the last of 
the tribes signed the agreement which gave the land to the govern- 
ment of the United States. 


Early Explorers 


The first white men to visit the soil now incorporated in the 
boundary of Calhoun County were Father Marquette, Louis Joliet, 
and their companions. Their expedition crossed what is now the state 
of Wisconsin early in the summer of 1673. On June 17, they reached 
the mouth of the Wisconsin River and started down the Mississippi. 
The main purpose of the trip was to determine whether the river 
emptied into the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific Ocean. They continued 
down the river and may have stopped on the western side of what 
is now Calhoun County, but if they did, they made no note of it in 
their journals. On the 17th day of July, they reached the mouth of 
the Arkansas River, and here they learned from the Indians that the 
Mississippi flowed into the Gulf of Mexico. They then started back 
l-'ut found traveling difficult because of the current of the river. 


Both Marquette and Joliet kept a diary on the trip, but most of 
writings of Joiet were lost when one of the canoes was overturned. 
The diary of Marquette, part of which is written in French and part 
in Latin, lias been preserved and from it we get much valuable infor- 
mation concerning the landings of the party. The town of Grafton. 
in Jersey County, has erected a statue, just above the town, to mark 
the place where Marquette and Joliet are supposed to have landed. 
They base their claims upon the fact that Marquette mentions that 
they entered the mouth of the Illinois River early in the morning, 
which would mean that th'e party had camped somewhere below the 
mouth during the previous evening. The territory about Grafton is 
high and a desirable place to camp, while the land opposite, on the 
Missouri side is low and swampy and would have made an undesirable 
camping place. 


The next place marked by local historians as a stopping point 
of the expedition is a place now called "Perrin's Ledge", located sev- 
eral miles above Kampsville. Their claims seem to be much better 
Supported by facts than those claims relating to the previous stop in 


the Grafton region. From Marquette's diary we get several facts of 
importance. He says: "We entered the mouth of the Illinois River 
very early in the morning", and further on he says: "We spent the 
night with some friendly Indians." From other parts of the diary we 
find that the party was traveling about twenty -five miles a day up 
the Mississippi River, but it is likely that they made better time on 
the Illinois River because there would be less current. If they were 
Traveling at a rate of slightly better than twenty-five miles a day and 
entered the river early in the morning (this was the last week in 
August) they wo'uld have been in the Kampsville neighborhood by 

At the place now called "Perrin's Ledge" several large Indian 
mounds are to be found and the first settlers in this part of the 
county found evidences to show that a small Indian village had been 
located here. Again the place ma.rked by the monument is much 
better as a camping place than the opposite side of the river. Here 
at the ledge, the bluff is very near to the water and the rocks project 
themselves in such a manner that they can be seen for miles down 
the river. From -a distance they have the appearance of the walls of 
a castle. There can be little doubt that it was at this place that the 
Marq*uette-Joliet party stopped for the night. 


The visit of LaS-alle and his party of explorers to the southern 
part of the county in the fall of 1680 has already been mentioned. 
Thus Calhoun can claim the distinction of being visited by three of 
the most famous of French Explorers in America. 


About 1800 a Federal Government Expedition passed through the 
county, exploring and surveying. Some of the men were so impressed 
with the land lying between the two rivers, that they later returned 
to make it their permanent home. 

Major Stephen H. Long, on a trip down the Mississippi River in 
August, 1817, said he "took an excursion across the peninsul-a" and 
reported to the government the number of settlements that he found. 



Early Settlers 


The first white settler to make his home in what is now Calhoun 
was a man named O'Neal. He came in the year 1801 and settled in 
Point Precinct at the Two Branches. Although his name might lead 
us to think otherwise, one account says that he was a French trapper 
and had made his way there from Acadia. 

He lived in Point Precinct a number of years before any other 
settlers came to that region, and when they did come he refused to 
mingle with them. He lived in a small cave which he had dug, and 
which was located about a quarter of a mile from the Mississippi 
River. He continued to live in this cave until his death in 1842, and 
after that he was referred to as "The Hermit" due to the fact that he 
would not visit the other settlers or allow them to come to his place. 
In 1850, Soloman Lammy, who then owned the farm upon which the 
cave was located, dug up the boards of the floor and leveled the sides 
on which large saplings were then growing. 


The next settlers were French trappers and some half breeds, 
who started a colony about a mile above the Deep Plain Ferry, on 
the Illinois River, in the southern part of the county. They remained 
until about 1815 when they were driven out by the very high water. 

Another French settlement was located at Cap au Gris (which 
means Cape of Grit or Grindstone). This place was located at the 
present site of West Point Ferry, in Richwoods Precinct. The French 
settlers who lived here came sometime after 1800 and by the year 
1811 there were 20 families, who had a small village on the bank of 
the river, and cultivated a common field of about 500 acres. This 
neld was located on the level land about a mile from the site of their 
town. One writer said that these families were driven away by the 
Indians in 1814, but there is some doubt a,s to the accuracy of the 
statement as John Shaw who took part in battles near the place and 
who mentions all attacks made on Missouri people makes no mention 
of any harm coming to the settlers at Cap au Gris. 



In the year 1811 Major Roberts arrived and settled near the 
present site of Brussels, on -a farm later known as the "Henry Kiel 
place". He made the journey from Ohio in a keel boat, and landed at 
the present site of Bloom's landing, on the Illinois River. 

John Shaw arrived in 1821. He had taken part in the Indian 
wars -along the Mississippi River and ha.d become acquainted with all 
of the territory between that river and the Illinois. He purchased 
much land in the county in the neighborhood of Gilead, Guilford, 
Belleview, and Hamburg. His decision to come to Calhoun was quite 
an important one, as will be explained later. 

Joshua Twichell arrived in May, 1822, with a large family. He 
came in a keel boat and landed at Coles Grove (now called Gilead). 
He had been a blacksmith in New York state and after coming here 
he engaged in his trade at Coles Grove for about a half year and then 
moved to the present site of Brussels where he started a shop. His 
son, Chesley, brought iron from St. Louis in a canoe and this iron 
was aft/erwards used in making the first iron plow that was ever used 
in the county. Mr. Twichell also ironed the first wa^on used in the 
county. This wagon was made by Mr. Twichell for his son-in-law, 
Major Roberts. 

Samuel Smith emigrated from Pittsburg in 1822 and built a house 
in a field that was later owned by Marion Todd, and which was located 
near the Point Pleasant School, in Point Precinct. About the same 
time the Mettz family moved into the county and settled at the 
present site of Brussels. Mr. Mettz cleared w, patch of land and con- 
structed his home near a large spring. 

In 1826 Robert Andrews, the grandfather of Thomas Andrews, 
came from Detroit where he had been one of the first settlers. He 
settled in what was known as the "Cresswell Settlement." Nathanial 
Shaw came in 1821 and settled where the old Schulze homestead is 
now located, southeast of Brussels. 

Captain Nixon and Ben Carrico settled along the Mississippi, near 
the Jacob Auer farm, in Point Precinct. Asa Carrico settled on the 
farm now owned by Mrs. Agnes Carpenter at Deer Plain. Another 
influential citizen of early Calhoun was Captair Marcus Aderton who 
owned a large tract of land near the Robert Andrews place. Some of 
the other families that settled in the Brussels neighborhood in the 
early days were the Roys, Marshalls, Stiles, Lates, Clines, and 
Greambas. * 

Judge Ebenezer Smith arrived in Calhoun on the ICth day of May, 
1819. He said there were only five settlements in the county at the 
time. He settled south of the present site of Hardin, and he is said 
to have been the first man to set out an orchard in the county. The 
small orchard was started a short time after his arrival in the county. 


Mr. Smith found a trading post in the neighborhood which was kept 
by a French-Canadian. In order to be free from the danger of 
drunken Indians in the community, he bought the trading post, and 
then destroyed it. 

John Ingersol arrived in the county about 1823 and settled at 
Guilford, five miles south of the present site of Hardin. A few years 
later he moved to the spring south of the A. C. Squier place. The 
Ingersol home was one of the first places in the county that was used 
as a place where church services were held. 

Jacob Pruden arrived in the county in 1829 and bought the farm 
that is now owned by the Mortland family. A Mr. Still, who sold the 
farm to Piuden, was afraid to stay in the neighborhood saying "the 
place was full of wolves and rattlesnakes". Charles Squiers came to 
the county in 1833 and in the spring of 1834 Pruden and he built a 
school house in Mortland Hollow. 

There were other early settlers who came before or shortly after 
1830, hut most of them will be mentioned in connection with the 
founding of certain villages and communities. 


The territory between the Mississippi and the Illinois Rivers was 
known to the early tattlers as the "Military Lands" or the "Military 
Tract'. The government of the United States set aside three and a 
half million acres of land lying between these two rivers, the land 
to be given to soldiers who served in the War of 1812. The 
soldiers who enlisted before December 10, 1814 were given 160 acres 
of land, while those enlisting after that date were given 320 acres. 
Most of the land was surveyed in 181G and 1817 but the I'ush of 
settlers did not begin until 1823. Much of the land in this section 
of the state wa.s owned by speculators and other people living in the 
east and this hindered the settlement of the region. Many of the 
soldiers who fought in the war, claimed the land that was due them, 
but immediately sold the land to speculators. In 1833 there were 139 
pieces of land in Calhoun County that were to be sold for taxes, and 
I'jt 34 of these pieces of land wore then owned by the people to whom 
they had been assigned. 

By studying the lists of the early settlers end the lives of the 
parents of the peopl'e who lived in the county at a later time, we find 
that very few of the first settlers were men who had taken part in the 
War of 1812. But due to the fact that the government had set aside 
this land for the soldiers, it became well known and caused other 
settlers to know about the region and finally settle in it themselves. 



The Formation of Calhoun County 

The territory now included with the bounds of Colhoun County has 
changed hands many times and has been under the control of many 
different governments and many units of governments. Until the close 
of the French and Indian War (1763) the territory in what is now 
Illinois was claimed by both the French and the English. But the 
Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave the land to the English, and much of it 
was 'under the control of the English Colonies along the Atlantic sea- 

While the American Revolution was in progress, General George 
Rogers Clark wrestled the territory now embraced within the states 
of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Inidiana, and Ohio from the British 
Government. In the spring of 1779, Col. John Todd, commissioned 
by the state of Virginia as its lieutenant, went to Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia and organized Clark's conquests into a county of Virginia, to 
which was given the name of "Illinois County." 


In 1790 the region now included in Illinois was part of the North- 
west Territory and the two counties in Illinois were St. Clair and 
Knox. In 1801 the region became a part of the Indian Territory and 
in 1809 the Illinois Territory was formed, and continued until 1818 
when Illinois became a state. 

From 1801 to 1812 the territory now included within Calhoun 
County was a part of St. Clair County. It then became a part of 
Madison County and remained in that county until the formation of 
Pike County in 1821. For the next four years it was a part of Pike, 
and then it was made a separate county. 


When Pike County was organized in 1821 it included all of the 
territory between the Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers as far north 
as the present Wisconsin line and as far east at Lake Michigan. The 
county seat of this vast strip of territory was located at Coles Grove 
(now called Gilead). The first Probate Court to be held west of the 
Illinois River was held at Coles Grove on May 23, 1821. The first 


Circuit Court to be held in the region was also held at Coles Grove 
(October, 1821), and John Reynolds who was later a governor of 
Illinois served as the judge. The first case that came before the court 
was a divorce case, the second a murder case. Two Indians had been 
arrested in the northern part of the state for the killing of anothei 
Indian and they were brought to Coles Grove for trial. The court 
appointed two interpreters, since the Indians coHild not speak English, 
and also appointed two lawyers to defend the Indians. The jury 
found one of the Indians not guilty, .and he was released. The other 
Indian was found guilty and he was fined twenty-five cents and sen- 
tenced to one day in jail. The prisoner broke out of jail and escaped 
the first night, but he probably had little difficulty in doing so as the 
jail rad been hurriedly constructed from an old rail pen. During the 
four years that Calhoun was a part of Pike County a number of men 
who later became county officials in this county, served as officials in 
Pike County. In this way they received m'uch valuable training that 
aided them in performing their official duties in Calhoun. 


The southern part of Pike County was cut off. by an act of the 
Legislature of Illinois, and made into a separate county. The new 
county was named Calhoun in honor of John C. Calhoton one of the 
greatest of the southern statesmen n at that time. The act of the 
Legislature was approved on January 10, 1825. George A. Allen and 
Gershom Flagg were appointed to select a county seat for the new 

On January 27, 1825 the two men mentioned above met and 
selected Colese Grove as the county seat, but they recommended that 
the name of the village be changed to Gilead. The change was made 
and it has retained that name ever since. 


The first election was held on February 2, 1825 at the homes of 
James Gilman and John Bolter. The following officers were elected: 
James Nixon, Ebenezer Smith, and Asa Carrico, County Commission- 
ers; Bigelow Fenton, Sheriff; James Levin, Coroner; A. M. Jenkins, 
Circuit Clerk; A. M. Jenkins, first Notary Public. Mr. Jenkins was 
also appointed County Clerk. 

The first act of the County Commissioners was to confirm the 
selection of Gilead as the County Seat. They also accepted the eighty 
acres of land and the twelve lots in Gilead which was given to them 
by John Shaw. The first meeting of the County Commissioners was 
held on March 8, 1825, at Gilead, and two of the Commissioners, James 
Nixon and Ebenezer Smith were present. 


It is interesting to note that the Commissioner system of county 
government was adopted for the new county. Under this system the 
general powers of control are placed in the hands of three County 
Commissioners elected from the co*unty at large for a term of three 
years, one being elected each year. The early records make no men- 
tion as to the reasons for adopting this form of government. Some 
of the early settlers may have lived for a few years in states or 
counties that had a simi'ar type of organization and thus may have 
been familiar with its advantages. Then, too, the form of the county 
may have had something to do with the adoption of this type. Calhoun 
is so irregular in shape that it would have been impossible to carve 
out townships that would have been of the same size. 

On March 24, 1825 the first marriage license was issued, the con- 
tracting parties being Samuel Cress wall and Eliza Hewitt. The Com- 
missioners Records for the same date show that "Sam'uel Still received 
permission to run a ferry across the Illinois River at the mouth of 
Apple Creek. The rates are to be as follows: 
Single person, 12^ 
Single horse, 12^ 
Cattle, under one year, 12^ 
Each hog, 3$ 
Two-wheeled venicle, 37# 
Four-wheeled vehicle, 50^". 
During the same year John Shaw received permission to operate 
a ferry across th'e Mississippi River opposite Clarksville, Mo., and 
John Bolter received permission for a ferry across the Mississippi at 
Little Cap au Gris, near the present site of the Golden Eagle ferry. 

Another one of the first acts of the Commissioners was to let the 
contract for the building of a jail at Gilead. The building was to be 
twelve feet square, eight feet high, and to be made of hewn timber. 
The contract was let to Daniel Church for forty dollars, and the county 
to furnish the materials. The contract also stated that the building 
was to be completed by the first Monday of Juno, 1825. 

At the same session, Levi Roberts made an application to run and 
operate a tavern at Gilead. He was granted a license, the fee being 
two dollars. The following rates were to be followed: 
"Meals, 25<f, 
Keeping horse overnight, 25^ 
Lodging, 6$ 

Whiskey, V 2 pint, 12f. 
In the period of 1825 to 1840 we find a number of unusual entries 
concerning different departments of the county government. One of 
these has to do with the k etting of a, stray pen. Stteh a pen was 


erected,in Gilead in 1834, as a place to keep stray animals that were 
going about the county doing damage. They were kept in the pen 
until the owned called and identified them. Each farmer had a certain 
brand or mark that was registered in the office of the County Clerk. 
By means of these brands the farmer could prove ownership to the 
animal. If no one claimed the animal, it would be sold, the expenses 
of sale and feeding would be deducted, and the balance turned over to 
the Treasurer of the county. The stay pen was usually in charge of 
the Sheriff. One record shows that John McDonald, the Sheriff, had 
charge of the pen and received $1.75 a week for the work. 

Another interesting and -amusing fact is that the first two jails 
that were built at Gilead were not strong enough to keep the prisoners 
from escaping. We find dozens of records in the period before 1846 
where persons were paid so much a night to guard the jail. In 1845 
a runaway negro, probably a slave from Missouri, was captured and 
placed in the jail. The county had to pay a guard fifty cents a night 
to watch the jail, during the period of forty days that the negro was 
(:ept there. The county officials and the citizens probably kept watcn 
over the jail in the day time, so no regular guard was maintained. 

In 1830, the county decided to build a n ; w brick court house at 
Gilead. The contract was given to Benjamin Munn, and he completed 
the building in 1832. The total cost of the building was $1,600. In 
1835 a new jail was constructed by John Huff. He received $299 for 
his labor and for the material that he used in the building. 



Early Villages and Communities 


The first settler on the present site of Brussels was John Mettz 
who came in 1822. Joshua Twichell moved from Coles Grove in the 
same year and started a blacksmith's shop. 

Several German families, from the province of Hanover, came to 
the Brussels vicinity in 1843. By 1850 a number of Irish had arrived 
and settled to the south andeast of the town. In the 50's and the 60's 
many German people came to the neighborhood; those belonging to 
the Lutheran faith settled to the west and so'uthwest of the present 
village of Brussels, while most of the Germans belonging to the 
Catholic faith settled with the limits of the village and to the east 
and "south. 

The Frelich and Irish that had settled near Brussels had moved 
away to a considerable extent, -and by 1910 leess than a dozen families 
of them could be found in a ten miles radius of Brussels. 


The village of Batchtown had several names before the present 
one was adopted. The village together with the surrounding farms 
was known as "Kichwoods" in the fifties. Later, the people speaking 
of the place frequently called it "Sam White's", after the leading 
merchant of the county. Later it was called "Batchelder ville", prob- 
ably in honor of William Batchelder, who was living in the village in 
the sixties. He bad been a Justice of the Peace, a merchant, and an 
owner and operator of a corn mill, which was later changed to a flour 
mill. In 1879 a post-office was established and the official name 
became Batchtown. 

We cannot discuss the early history of Batchtown without men- 
tioning the name of Samuel White. Mr. White, a native of Missouri, 
came to Calhoun in 1851. He attended the district school at Batch- 
town, McKendree College, and a business college. When he was 21 
(in 1866) he sold the property that he had inherited from his father 
and invested the $2,500 for goods for a store which he started at 
Gilead. Tn 1868 he moved to Batchtown. Here he erected a two-story 


building, 45 feet across the front and 75 feet deep. He filled it with a 
complete stock of groceries, dry goods, shoes, and hardware. He 
was also a dealer in farm machinery. 

Mr. White erected a flo'ur mill in Batchtown and the farmers from 
the entire southern and central part of the county brought grain to 
this mill. This mill was remodeled in 1878 and 1890. His store was 
the largest and best known in the county in the period of 1870i to 

Another merchant who was doing business in Batchtown, but 
before the time of Sam White, was Thomas J. Douglas. 

The Lowe family came to Batchtown in 1866. John Lowe wa.s 
School Treasurer for fourteen years and his son, Austin, has succeed- 
ed him and served for many years. Austin also served as Justice of 
the Peace for many years. 

Among the other early settlers in the Batchtown neighborhood 
were Robert C. Beaty, who came in the 40's or early 50's; David Davis 
Cockrell, who came in the ecrly 60's; Dr. James D. Douglas, who 
came to Richwoods about 1855 and practiced medicine; Justus Franke, 
who sailed from Germany in 1866 and came to Calhoun two years 
later; William H. Smith, who came in 1843; and A. C. Wilson, who 
settled in the county in 1849. Mr. Wilson formerly owned the land 
upon which Batchtown is now built. 


In the year 1822, Pike County included all of the territory from 
the mouth of the Illinois River up to the present Wisconsin line, and 
to Lake Michigan. At the election of that year there were just three 
pla,ces where the inhabitants of that vast strip of territory might vote 
and one of thos'e places was Coles Grove. As has been mentioned 
before the first court in Pike County was held here. In 1823 when 
the county seat was moved to Atlas, Coles Grove remained a voting 

When the town was chosan as the county seat of Calhoun County 
in 1825, the name was changed to Gilead. One of the principal 
reasons for its importance in the early days was because it was the 
home of John Shaw, who was probably the best known Calhoun citizen 
in the days before the Civil War. 

Shaw had taken part in the Indian wars in 1813 and had settled 
in Gilead in the early days. In speaking of his coming to Calhoun, 
Shaw said: 

"In the early part of 1821, I commenced clearing and setting up 
a farm between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, at a point where 
Gilead is now located. Year after year I extended my farming inter- 
ests until I cultivated 1200 acres of land in one year and had nearly 
400 head of cattle." 


Shaw lived at Gilead for some time, started a ferry across: the 
Mississippi River at ClarksviUe in 1825, .and about 1830 he settled at 
the present site of Hamburg. He had been a member of the Legis- 
lature before Calhoun was organized as a cofunty and he probably 
used his influence in having Gilead made the county seat. 

Gilead became a town of importance when it was made the county 
seat. In 1837, a book that contained a description of all towns in the 
state, had the following to say about Gilead: 

"Gilead has two stores and a dozen families. The court house 
is of brick, two stories, 30 feet square, and finished omtside." 

A post-office was established in Gilead and a report made to the 
government in 1831 shows that the business done by the Gilead office 
was greater than the combined business of the other two offices in 
the county, at Hamburg and Belleview. 

During the first two weeks of January, 1847, the court house at 
Gilead was destroyed by fire, but all of the county records seem to 
have been saved, probably because several of the county officers had 
their offices in another building. A small house located on the village 
square was rented from Daniel T. Simpson as a meeting place for 
the County Commissioners. On January 18, the Commissioners were 
considering the rebuilding of the court house, but on February 23, 
they decided that an election should be held to see if Gilead should 
remain the county seat or if some other town in the county should 
be chosen. At this meeting it wa,s decided that Hamburg should be 
the temporary county seat. 

The Wilkinson, Plummers, and Hap<ers settled in the neighborhood 
of Gilead at an early date and played an important part in the build- 
ing of the community. In 1825 Jacob Crader and his son, Samuel 
Grader, moved into the Salt Spring Hollow. The Byrds, Wises, 
Schells, Pillersons, and Stiles arrived soon after. Most of these fam- 
ilies came from Cape Girardeau, Missouri, in covered wagons, and all, 
with the exception of the Stiles family, settled north of Gilead. 

In 1929, Jacob Crader moved to a point six miles northeast of 
'Gilead and built two water power corn mills. In the same year 
Samuel Crader moved from Gilead and settled in Indian Creek, where 
he built a blacksmith's shop and a water power mill. 

All of the land upon which the village of Hamburg is now located 
was once owned by John Shaw. He moved to this land sometime in 
the late 20's, and in the year 1830 a post-office was established. Shaw 
was appointed postmaster, a position that he held for 23 years. In 
1834 the town site was surveyed by James Shaw, a civil engineer and 
a brother of John Shaw. In 1834 the town was described, in an 
emigrants' guide, in the following words: 

"Hamburg, a landing on the Mississippi River in Calhoun County, 
and the residence of John Shaw, Esq., ten miles northwest of Gilead. 


The landing is said to be good, and the bank high. There-la -a- post- 
office by the same name." 

Mrs. Caroline Dewey, an early settler, in speaking of the town 
in the early days, said: 

"Sometime during the latter part of 1840 or 1841, my father sold 
his place and moved to Hamburg. It was quite a little village at that 
time. There were a couple of stores and a saloon or two. Lumbering 
was carried on at that time and this made Hamburg a lively place. 
My father bought a lot close to the river, and built a house upon the 
lot. We lived there at the time of the Launching* of the steamboat 
that was built by John Shaw, the pioneer citizen of the village and its 

John Shaw and his steamboat have long been a mystery to the 
people of Calhoun. He built this boat at Hamburg and spent most of 
his money in the enterprise. He had people from miles around bring 
their surplus produce to Hamburg to be shipped to the market down 
the river. John Lammy, in his short history of the county, said: 

"Shaw considered St. Louis too small a place for the patronage 
of his boat, so he steamed on down the river to New Orleans, from 
whence it appears he never came back." 

At any rate, Mr. Lammy, who was sheriff of the county, did not 
know what became of Shaw. In 1891, Percy Epler in one of his artices 
on Calhoun County that appeared in a Chicago paper, said: 

". . . . and he loaded his boat and steamed down the Mississippi. 
This was the last seen of John Shaw. Whether he succeeded in selling 
the cargo, or whether the nameless boat fell into the hands of the 
government is; not known to this day." 

Recently the writer of this booklet discovered some of the 
writings of Shaw in the Wisconsin Historical Collection that were 
written after he disappeared from Calhoun. In one of articles, Shaw 
mentions the steamboat. 

"But in 1841'', he says, "I was induced to build a steamboat, and 
it was the first one on the river above St. Louis, and it bore my name 
by special desire of my friends. And the total loss of the boat a year 
after, caused me a loss of $80,000. This so broke me up that in J.84.5-, 
I came to -Wisconsin, . . . and finally located at St. Marie." 

Hamburg was selected to serve as the county seat in 1847, when 
the court house had been destroyed at Gilead. The first meeting of 
the County Commissioners was held on March 16, 1847. Only two 
Commissioners were present as James Guy, one of the Commission- 
ers,, had died sometime between the meeting of February 23rd, and 
this meeting. 

The Commissioners decided to use a house, formerly occupied by 
John Shaw as a store, as a .voting place and a place where official 
business might be conducted.. On March 18th, Stephen Farrow" was 
granted -a license -to run a. ferry across the Illinois River at Farrow- 
town (later called Kampsville). 


Augustas Barteii was granted a license to run a ferry at Ham- 
burg and was allowed to charge the same rates as the ferry at CI arks - 

On August 12, 1847, the people of Hamburg presented a petition 
to the County Commissioners asking them to refrain from moving 
the county seat over to Child's Landing, but this place was selected in 
spite of the objections of the Hamburg people. 

The last meeting of the County Commissioners at Hamburg was 
held September 8, 1847. At this meeting the sale of the old court 
house and the old Square .at Gilead was ordered.' 

The first settler in the neighborhood of Hamburg was Mr. Mozier 
who settled north of the present site of the town and near what is 
now Mozier Landing. In 1829 Samuel Grader settled in the Indian 
Creek neighborhood. Among the other early settlers were Abner 
Gresham, Wesley Bovee, Louis and Jackson Swarnes, Asher Squiers, 

C. C. Squiers, Miltin Stone, Mr. Wineland, Mr. Dorr, Louis Puter- 
baugh, S. H. Stone, I. N. Jackson, William Phillips, I. J. Varner, H. 

D. Ruyle, Charles Edwards, Hewt Long, Alfred Games, John and 
William Lammy, Anton Dirksmeyer, Rotger Freesmeyer, Bradford 
Gresham, William Poor, Charles Schlieper, Sr, and Silas Wilson. 


The first settler at what is now Hardin was Dr. William Terry. 
He stopped at the home of Ebenezer Smith on his arrival in Calhoun 
and then built a house near the present site of the Town Hall in Har- 
din. The place was known as "Terry's Landing" until the arrival of 
Benjamin Childs in 1835. Mr. Childs purchased the land from Terry 
and from that time until the place was made the county seat, it was 
known as "Childs' Landing". 

Mr. Childs built a home and engaged in the mercantile business. 
He also operated the landing and shipped much cordwood, staves, and 
lumber to the St. Louis market. The third house to be built at Childs' 
Landing was constructed by James Dewey. He cut the trees in the 
bottom opposite Kampsville and rafted them down the river. He 
landed the raft at Childs' Landing on the 4th day of March, 1844. 

It was not until the construction of the county buildings that 
Childs' Landing became important. An early writer in speaking of 
the changing of the county seat said : 

"When the Court House and the jail burned at Gilead there was 
much rivalry to see what town should be, the capital of the county. 
Gilead, Hamburg, -and Childs' Landing were the ones desiring it. 
Benj. J. Childs offered five acres of land and fifty thousand bricks if 
the county seat were moved to his landing. In order to cinch the 
thing, he gave a barbecue and free dinner to everybody, and I was 
one of those everybodies who took advantage of the free dinner. 
When the votes were counted, Childs' Landing had more votes than 
the combined vote of the other two points." 


As was mentioned before, the Hamburg people objected to the 
election and presented a petition to the Commissioners, The clerk of 
the 'Commissioners Court summarized the petition as follows: 

"The citizens of Hamburg and adjacent neighborhood presented a 
petition remonstrating against any action being taken by this court 
in regard to their taking any steps toward he building of a court 
house at Childs' Landing, setting forth in said petition that said land- 
ing in the last election obtained a majority by frad'ulent menas. The 
court upon consideration adjudged that they had nothing to do in the 
matter of the said petition, and that the petitioners had leave to 
withdraw the said petiion." 

On August 12, 1847, the Commissioners agreed that the County 
Seat should be at Childs' Landing "for it would be more satisfactory 
to the citizens, generally," and that the Commissioners should "cause 
the same to be laid off into a town, as also a Public Scfuare, for the 
purpose of erecting a court house thereon." At the same meeting the 
Commissioners agree to meet at Childs' Landing on the 26th of 
August, 1847. 

The five acres of land given by Mr. Childs' was the land upon 
which most of the business houses at Hardin now stand. Part of the 
land was reserved as »a place where the public buildings might be 
erected, and the remainder was divided into lots and sold to the highest 
bidder. The person purchasing the lots could have either six or twelve 
months to pay for the land. The money received from the sale of the 
lots was used in constructing the public buildings. 

One of the first buildings to be erected was the court house.. It 
was to be 36 by 30 feet,, two stories high, and made of brick. In 
December, 1847, the contract was let for $1,199. In September, 1848, 
the contractor, William D. Hamilton, notified the court that he had 
completed the court house. The next building of importance was the 
jail, which was to 32 by 20 feet, and Contain a strong cell. The lowest 
bidder was B. W. Hamilton, and the amount of the bid was $1,275. 
The work was done by sub-contractors, Benjamin Childs and William 
D. Hamilton. The jail was completed in 1850. 

The name of the new county seat wa^ changed to "Hardin" in 
1847, but the Commissioners Records do not state the reason why 
this name was chosen, although they gave their approval to the name. 
Mrs. Caroline Dewey, whose husband had been living at Childs' Land- 
ing since 1844, gives the following explanation for the name of the 

"The town was laid out in the year 1847, and, the name Hardin 
was selected in honor of Col. John J. Hardin. At the outbreak of the 
Mexican War, he was commissioned Colonel of the first Illinois Vol- 
unteers, and was killed while leading a charge, early in the year 1847. 
The horse from which he fell was shipped to some point up the river 
that spring on the steamer, "Movaster". I remember quite well the 
landing of the boat at then Farrowtown, now Kampsville, and it was 


said at the time that Col. Hardin's horse, from which he fell, was on 
the boat." 

The first meeting of the County Commissioners at the new county 
seat took place on Decembed 6, 1847. The three Commissioners, 
Daniel T. Simpson, Adam Harpole, and Henry G. Stiles, were present. 
John Chauncey, the Clerk, and West M. Miller were also present. In 
1854, James Dewey applied for a license to run and operate a saloon 
in Hardin. This license was granted, and a fee of $50 was charged. 
This saloon of Mr. Dewey's was in operation for many years and was 
one of the best known places of its kind in the county. It was located 
on the corner, just west of the Herald office. 

In 1854 there were a number of business places in Hardin. 
Stephen and John Lewis were in the mercantinle business, their store 
being located just north of the present site of the Town Hall. John 
Gilbert kept a dry goods store, a saloon, and a hotel. 

Another merchant that wa,s prominent in the early days was 
Andrew Unrig. He settled in Calhoun in 1829 along the Hurricane 
Island Slough, north of Hardin. Being a man of wealth, he engaged 
largely in the mercantile business. He owned a boat, the "Pearl", 
which operated for many years on the Illinois Eiver. He planted the 
first vineyard, and sold the first beer in the county. While living 
north of Hardin, he engaged in the mercantile business. In 1847, he 
moved to Childs' landing and worked to have it made the co'anty seat. 
He started a store and a saloon in the building just south of the court 
house. The place was later called the "Perry House." 

In 1858 there were four lawyers living in Hardin. They were 
Frank M. and James F. Greathouse, Stephen Lewis, and D. M. Mc- 

One of the first settlers in the Hardin neighborhood was Ziprien 
Lamar. He died while a young man (1831) b'at left a, son, also called 
Ziprien. When this son, Ziprien, grew to manhoood he cleared much 
J and and made himself a useful citizen. He was married in 1858 and 
became the father of seven children, one of whom was Charles H. 
Lamar, for many years the editor of the Calhoun Herald. 

The Hardin Post Office was established in 1847 and Benjamin 
Childs was the first Postmaster. He served continuously from 1847 
to 1887, with the exception of the Buckanari Administration. 


Two of the earliest settlers in Crater Precinct, in which Kamps- 
ville is located, were Jacob Crader and Salmon Bushnell. We find 
Mr. Crader moving from the west side of the co'anty to a place several 
miles south of the present site of Kampsville, in the year 1830. Two 
years later he moved from the bluff to the river, at a place now 
called "Crater Landing". Mr. Bushnell settled at the present site of 
Kampsville, and operated a f erry. " The place was known as "Bush- 
nell's Ferry". Other settlers in the Kampsville neighborhood in the 


pre-civil war period were George Beehdolt, who settled in 1839, David 
Nevius. in the 40's, James Poiles in 1855, Allen Johns in 1858, and 
Michael Worth in 1856. 

In 1840 there was but one house at the present site of Kampsville 
and that was the home of Stephen Farrow. Columbiana, on the oppo- 
site side of the river was then a hustling little town, and the main 
shipping point for miles aro'und. After a few more families settled 
about the home of Farrow, the place was called "Farrowtown". On 
March 16, 1847, Stephen Farrow was given a license to run -a ferry 
across the river and the County Commissioners referred to the place 
as Far ro town. 

Silver Creek seemed to have been the rival of Farrowtown in the 
early days. A post-office was established at Silver Creek in 1863, and 
Capt. M. A. Kamp was the leading merchant. He kept a grocery and 
dry-goods store and served as the postmaster. He moved to Farrow- 
town in 1873, and the citizens of the town soon petitioned that the 
name of the town be changed to Kampsville in honor of Capt. Kamp. 
The name was changed as requested. 

On November 22, 1887, the first election, under the village 
organization, was held. The following men were elected as Trustees: 
M. A. KaKmp, J. H. Churchman, C. B. Farrow, Joseph Hayn, G. Alex- 
ander, and P. Ammatt. M. A. Kamp was chosen president of the board, 
and James Edwards was appointed village marshall. 

In the 80's the federal and state governments started to build a 
series of dams in the Illinois River. The fifth and largest of the series 
was constructed at Kampsville in 1888. The dam was l,0CO feet long 
and 8 feet in height, being made of solid masonry. The lock, located 
on the Kampsville side of the river, was constructed 350 feet in length 
and 75 feet wide. The cost of the dam and the locks was estimated 
at $350,000. 

Some of the business houses that existed before 1900 were: Mrs. 
B. Sutter, Joseph Hayn, Mrs. J. W. Oberjohn, J. A. Kamp, Jacob 
Brenn, Felix Mosler, Phillip Ammott, and Fred Reamensnider. 


In the year 1834 all of the territory now included in. Carlin and 
Crater Precincts was organized into one precinct, which was known as 
"Illinois Precinct , \ The voting place for the precinct was the home 
of Jacob Crader, Sr., several miles south of the present site of Kamps- 
ville. On June 3, 1839 Carlin Precinct was formed and the John 
Beeman Ferry house was designated as the place where the elections 
were held. This precinct was probably named inj honor of Thomas 
Carlin, who had been elected Governor of Illinois in 1838. 

Probably the first settler in Carlin Precinct was James G. Tharp, 
who came to the county in 1829. The Commissioners Records mention 
the names of Isahel Newell, J. B. Newell, John Beeman, William 


Beeman, and Thomas Larkin as being residents of the precinct in the 
3G's. Other early settlers were Jesse Simmons (1838), Thomas Dam- 
ley (in the early 40's), Israel Piper (in the 40's), Francis Lynn (in the 
40's), Greagory Becker (in the early 50's), John Sibley (1854), John 
S. Lane (1860), and Sebastan Retzer (1860). 

Both John and William Beeman operated -a ferry at different 
times. Carlin Precinct never had a large population at -any time, and 
no large towns ever locted there. A post-office had been established 
at Silver Creek, but when Kampsville became important, the office 
was moved to that place. 


In 1831 a post-office was established in Belle view Precinct, at a 
place known -as Belleview. Later a few stores were located here, as 
well as a mill and a blocksmith shop. No large towns or villages ever 
grew up in this precinct. 

In the election of 1834 the following men served as judges and 
clerks: Wellman Dustan, H. P. Buckanan, Jacob Mozier, Samuel 
Dewey, and Valenetine Buckanan. Dr. Allen Jones who settled in the 
precinct in 1840 gives a list of the voters of the election of 1840. 
They were: Alexander Hemphill, William Wall, John Stark, Henry G. 
Hart, William Anderson, H. P. Buckanan, Daniel Puterbaugh, John 
Borrowman, John Martin, Michael Starnes, A. L. Mozier, Samuel 
Monn, Alvin Tolbert, Lewis Mars, Jr., A. Mars, Samuel Peg, Thomas 
and George McClelland, Jack Maloy, James Dewey, and John Stall. 
One of the men in the list, Alexander Hemphil, was serving as County 
Commissioner at the time. 

Until 1834 all of the territory in the northern part of the county, 
that now included in Carlin, Crater, Hamburg, and Belleview Precincts, 
was a part of Belleview Precinct. In 1834, the part now included in 
Carlin and Crater was taken away from Belleview Precinct, and in 
1848 Hamburg Precinct was formed from the southern part of Belle- 
view Precinct. 

Among the early settlers in Belleview Precinct were: John Bor- 
rowman, who settled at Farmers' Ridge in 1848; John Anderson in 
the early 40's; John Crosby, in the early 30's; Humphrey Harlow in 
1843; Wesley Miller in 1843; Lewis Johnson in 1850; Levi Thomas in 
1851; Abraham Goewey in 1851; John Foiles in 1851; Henry V. Foiles 
in 1854; John W. Long in 1856; and Andreas Wintjen in 1858. 

In 1845 Dan Looper owned a hand corn mill, which was the only 
mill for miles around. 


There are a number of towns that are shown on maps that were 
made before the Civil War that are not listed on the recent maps. 
One of those. towns was Milan. In 1837 it was described as "a post- 
office and town site in south Calhoun, fractional section 28, township 


13S., one west. The first post-office in Point Precinct was located at 
Milan and the Postmaster was John Bolter, who was one of the prom- 
inent men in the southern part of the county in the early days. The 
post-office remained at Milan until 1849, when it was transferred to 
Deer Plain. Milan was located several miles below the present site 
of the Golden Eagle. The land in and about the od town of Milan is 
now owned by John Schmieder, one of the County Commissioners of 
Calhoun County. 

Another village that was even more important than Milan, was 
Monterey. In 1854 a post-office was located there with J. S. Rutland 
serving as the postmaster. General Stores were conducted by J. S. 
Rutland and William Lee. C. W. Twichell ran a blacksmith shop, 
Stephen Effington operated a Hour mill, Jefferson Crull was a furni- 
ture dealer, and a Mr. McCall was the Methodist Minister residing 
there. Before the post-office was established at Ba.tchtown, the mail 
for the Batchtown people was taken over the dividing ridge by some- 
one from the Montery office. After a post-office was established at 
Batchtown, the town began to decline and at the present time there 
is nothing left but the red-brick school. 

Cap au Gris, the small French settlement on the Mississippi River 
near the present site of the West Point Ferry, in Richwoods Precinct, 
served as a voting place for many years. The entire southern part 
of the county wa,s known as Cap au Gris Precinct until 1848, when the 
name was changed to Point. By 1900 the little town had disappeared 
and at the present time the name is applied to a point in Missouri, 
opposite to where Cap au Gris once stood. 

Another village that probably hoped to become the leading town 
of the county was Gilford. It was located near the Illinois River, in 
fractional township IIS, two west, about six miles south of the present 
site of Hardin. In 1837, an account concerning the town said: "It 
has been laid off and is said to be well situated for business purposes." 
The same writer also called Guilford "the new county seat" as ex- 
plained elsewhere it never served a,s such. Shortly before 1836 a canal 
was planned across the county, from Guilford to Gilead. This plan 
was probably abandoned because of the Panic of 1837. After the 
county seat was moved to Hardin, Guilford began to decline, and to- 
day there is nothing to show where this little once stood. 



Popluation and Population Changes 

A study of the lists of the early arrivals in the county will show 
that most of them were of English descent, and came to Calhoun from 
some other state or territory. A large number settled first in Mis- 
souri, especially in Lincoln County, and then came to Calhoun at a 
later date.. Before 1840 we find no settlement of any certain nation- 
alities. The Germans and the Irish who came before that date were 
scattered about the county among the English and the few French. 

The Germans started to come into Point Precinct soon after 1840 
and formed two distinct settlements. One group was composed of 
Germans from Hanover who were members of the Catholic Church. 
They settled in Brussels and the region to the south and east of the 
village. The other group of Germans were of the Lutheran faith and 
settled to the west of Brussels. The German language was used to a 
considerable extent in the homes, churches, and parochial schools 
until the entry of The United States into World Wax. 

In Batchtown and neighborhood territory there were Germans of 
both religions, but they were mixed among English and Irish and had 
more diffieullty in keeping the German language. Because of the pres- 
ence of a large number of English speaking people it was not possible 
to use the language in the churches or school to any extent. 

Meppen was settled by Germans, most of whom came from the 
Province of Hanover. They named their village after one of the towns 
of Hanover. Since the community was almost one hundred percent 
German, the German language was used to a considerable extent in 
the homes, church, and parochial school up to 1918. 


About Hardin and Gilead most of the people were of English 
extraction. Several miles north of Hardin a large number of French 
settled, their settlement being known as "French Hollow". Many of 
these people were not from France, but from the French Cantons of 
Switzerland. They made little attempt to use the French language 
in their hordes, and the presence of a large number of English and 
Irish made the use in the church impossible. 


A number of Irish settled in the region of Hamburg, especially 
to the ea,st of the town, their settlement being known -as "Irish Hol- 
low". Most of them were Catholic and attended the church at 


The first census that was taken after Calhoun became a county 
was in 1830. The population at that time was listed as 1,092 of which 
number 1,090 were free white people. This same census mentions that 
there were no colored people in th county, so the other two people 
included in the first figures were probably indentured servants. The 
county records of the 3G's mention the presence of several in the 


In the next census report, that of 1840, the presence of colored 
people is mentioned. The following table will show the number in 
each census report, together with their place of residence: 

1£4C — 15 colored people (13 males and 2 females). 

1850 — 1 colored person (lived in Gilead Precinct). 

18GC — 2 colored persons (1 in Belleview, 1 in Gilead). 

1870 — 3 colored persons (1 in Belleview, 2 in Gilead). 

1880 — 1 colored person (lived in Gilead). 

1890 — and after, none found in county. 

After 1890 the people of the county were very much opposed to 
having colored people in the county and on several occasions they were 
driven from the county. A story is told about the county of several 
negroes being killed in a fight with a white man. This fight took place 
in the Civil War days at Hamburg. A third negro in the party was 
wounded but succeeded in reaching St. Louis where he told other mem- 
bers of his race about the reception that he had received in Calhoun. 
The colored people tha,t lived in the county were free, and there is no 
evidence to show that any slaves were ever brought to the county 
before the Civil War. 


The largest gain in population came between the years 1840' and 
1860. This was due to the great number of Irish and Germans that 
were arriving. The population by years is as follows: 







1890'— 7,652. ^ 





5,347 total population of the county 
3,524 born in the state of Illinois 
204 born in Ohio 
60 born in New York 
108 born in Pennsylvania 
144 born in Indiana 
171 born in Kentucky 
37 born in British America 
96 born in England and Wales 
110 born in Ireland 

5 born in Scotland 
875 born in Germ-any 
36 born in France 
86 born in Switzerland 
19 born in Holland 
1 born in Norway-Sweden. 
Each year, the percent of foreign born inhabitants decreases, and 
it is probable that there are less than 1% of the population of the 
county tha,t do not use the English language at the present time. 
There are few persons living in the coHinty that are of southern 
European extraction. 


History of Calhoun Schools 

The schools in the early days of Calhoun Co'unty were supervised 
by a man known as the "School Commissioner". The Federal Govern- 
ment had given section 16, of each township, to the county to be sold 
for school purposes. One of the chief duties of thee School Commis- 
sioner was to sell the land and distribute the money to the schools. 
The County Commissioners Eecords mention the names of the follow- 
ing men having served as School Commissioners, but there is some 
cio'ubt as to the exact date of service by each person: 

John Shaw (appointed in 1836) 

O. W. Ba,con (serving in 1840) 

Dr. William Terry (serving in 1845) 

William H. Miller (1845-1846) 

Nathanial Shaw (appointed in 1846) 

H. P. Buckanan (serving in 1852 -and 1854) 

Josiah Woodward (served sometime between 1854 and 1865) 

Stephen G. Lewis (1865-1869) 

After the year 1869, the persons having charge of the schools was 
called the ''Superintendent of Schools". The list of persons who served 
in this capacity, together with their length of service, is as follows: 

Soloman Lammy (1869-1873) 

Israel Varner (1873-1877) 

James McNabb (2 terms, 1877-1887) 

William E. Barber (1887-1891) 

John E. Watson (1891-1895) 

Elmore E. Allen (2 terms, 1895-1899, 1903-1907) 

Chas. H. Lamar (1899-1903) 

Stephen J. Sibley (4 terms, 1907-1923) 

Fred A. Long (2 terms, 1923-1929) 

Cuba M. Tureman (1929- ) 

The first school buildings of the county were made in much the 
same way that the houses were. A man who lived in the county in 
the 30's and 40's said: 

"There were in keeping with o»ur crude environment . . . made 
of logs without hewing and covered with clapboards laid on what was 
called ribs and held in position with poles, called weight poles; nailed 
on roofs were the exception, but later we got one one grade higher by 
having boards nailed on. . . . The walls of the building had been 
chinked and daubed with clay mortar. Now the furniture consisted 
of seats made of split logs, hewed as smooth as possible (but not 
planed) and about twelve feet long, more or less, with holes bored in 
for legs. The next thing was to provide a place to write. This was 
generally a long plank fastened to the side of the wall by hinges and 


held up by temporary props or legs so that it could, when not in use, 
be let down as to be out of the way. And every student s outfit con- 
sisted of a old blue back Webster's spelling book, a copy book made 
of sewing a few sheets of foolscap paper together, two or three goose 
quills to make pens, and a bottle with about two thimblefuls of ink. . . 
There is a lot of data on this school question, such as rules that pre- 
vailed in hiring teachers and their remuneration. There were no 
public schools in the county and the mode of operation would be to 
take a subscription paper and canvass the neighborhood in which the 
school is to be taught and see how many scholars the patrons would 
sign.. The teachers v/ould generally expect fifteen dollars a month 
with the privilege of boarding around with the scholars. The price 
per student would depend somewhat upon the number of children in 
the neighborhood, ordinarily two dollars per scholar. But in case 
the children were few, the price would be two dollars and fifty cents, 
or enough to make the teacher his fifteen dollars a, month and board 
and lodgings. Our experience and obseivation verified the fact that 
the teacher staid the longest where the pot boiled the strongest, al- 
though he was expected to even up his stay among the patrons of the 
school. In regard to furnishing wood for the school it was expected 
that the tea,cher, with the help of the large boys, would chop the wcod 
and keep the fire, which was no small job on a cold day. The manner 
of getting the wocdto the school house was generally for the neigh- 
bors to turn out with one or two yoke of oxen, and a long, strong 
chain and haul a quantity in the school yard and by that m©°ns keep 
wood handy for the teachers and scholars to chop at mornings and 
noons and sometimes at recesses and after school." 

Two of the first schools in the county were the Point Pleasant 
School and the Bethel School in the southern part of the county. John 
McDonald, who later became the Sheriff of the county and a member 
of the Legislature, taught the Point Pleasant school in 1829. A school 
was built in Mortland Hollow in 1834 by Jacob Pruden and Charles 

The reports of the School Commissioners to the State Superin- 
tendent gives us some idea as to the number and condition of the 
schools at different times. The first of these reports was made in the 
year 1852. The report gives the following facts: 

"18 schools in the county 

15 schools taught by men 

3 schools taught by women 

440 pupils attending schools in the county 

Average number of months school was in session, 3 months 

Average monthly salary for men, $20. 

Average monthly salary for women, $10. 

Amount spent in the year for schools, $870.07 


School land sold in year, 280 acres for $395. 
School land unsold, 720 acres." 

Mr. H. P. Buckanan, the School Commissioner, in a letter, dated 
November 22, 1852, to the Superintendent of Public Instruction said 
in part: ". . . . I am glad to see that the people of this county have 
at la,st turned their attention to more education. More than half of 
the school houses were built in the last two years. They have all 
been built by subscription. The text books in use in the county are: 

McGaffery's Eclectic Series 

Smith's Grammar 

Smith's, Mitchell's, Woodbridge's Geographies 

Smith's, Ray's, Adam's, and Calhoun's Arithmetics 

Goodrich's, Hale's, and Grimshaw's History 

Webster's and Ray's Spelling books." 

In 1860 another report was made and by the comparison of it 
with the 18E2 report we can see the advancement made in the schools 
of the county. This report shows the following: 

'•22 schools 

1125 pupils attending 

23 male teachers 

8 women teachers 

Average term, 7 months 

Schools erected during the year, 5 

Average monthly salary for men, $29.11 

Average monthly salary for women, $22.85 

Amount spent for school in entire year, $3692. 

Highest salary paid, $35. 

Lowest salary paid, $20." 

In the early days no teachers' certificates were required and no 
teachers' examinations were given. After the Civil War when the 
county was organized into districts, the teachers' examinations would 
be given by the County Superintendent, and county certificates would 
be given to those who passed the examination. , 

The teachers' institutes were important in the early days as most 
of the teachers did not go away to the Normal Schools or other sim- 
ilar institutions to receive training. They were conducted much the 
same as classes in high schools to-day. Books would be given out to 
the teachers attending the institute, and lessons would be assigned. 
These institutes often lasted two weeks -and the teachers would get 
much the same training as they receive in the summer normal train- 
ing at the present time. 

On the following pages a brief history, of the different schools 
of the county, will be given. 


Schools of Calhoun County 


Lakeview School, District No. 4i/ 2 

In the early days, the children of what is now District No. AYz 
-attended the Elm Grove School. 

There have been two school buildings in the Lakeview District, 
the second of which was built in 1925. Very little about the history 
of the school is known to the writer due to the fact that no answers 
were received from numerous inquiries to people of this district. 
Elm Grove School, District No. 4 

The first school in the Elm Grove District (then District No. 1) 
was a log building which was built in 1859. It was situated near the 
site of the present building. The blackboards were made of wood 
and painted black. The seats were made of long boards and five and 
six pupils weald sit together. As in many of the early schools, the 
boys had to cut the fire-wood and biing it into the building. The 
teacher boarded around with all of the different, families in the dis- 
trict that sent children to the school. About thirty or thirty- five 
children attended the school in the school year of 1859-1860. 

The first teacher of the Elm Grove School was Margaret Shultz. 
Other early teachers were: Elizabeth Keightly, J. W. Graff ord, and 
James Turnbeaugh. 

In 1897, a frame building was erected and it is in use at the 
present time. The enrollment in 1932 was 24. At one time most of 
the land in the district was held by non-residents. The first settler 
was John Howell, who came sometime before 1850. 
Farmers' Ridge School, District No. 3 

When the first school tuildng was erected (in 1848) the district 
included most of north Calhoun. It was divided, 1 a few years later, 
and another log building was erected farther north. This new district 
included all of the territory now found in the Byerton and Farmers' 
Ridge District. The school building stood at the crossroads, near the 
present site of the Farmers' Ridge Church of Christ. 

In 1882 the district was again divided, the east part being known 
as Byerton and the west part as Farmers' Ridge. A school, a frame 
building, was erected near the center of the new district.. It was 
enlarged a few years after it was built. 

The old log school building was purchased by the Church of 
Christ and used by them for a number of years. 

The present school building was erected in 1917. The construction 
work was done by Fred Halsey. It is a modern building, with a base- 
ment and a furnace and cost about $2,500. It has a seating capacity 
of about fifty, although the present enrollment is only twenty. 

Among the first teachers were: Patty Ferguson, Margaret Schultz 
and Tom Davis. 


Belleview School, District No. 5 

The first school building a,t Belleview was constructed about 1869, 
■and the building was used as a school and a church. Some of the 
early teachers were: James B. Day, George Lock, and J. W. Grafford. 

The present building was erected in 1916. The enrollment of the 
Belleview School in 1932 was thirty-eight. 
Byerton School, District No. 2 

In the early days the Byerton School and the Farmers' Ridge 
School were combined in a. building at the crossroads where the Far- 
mers' Ridge Church now stands. In 1882, the district was divided. 
The west part being known as Farmers' Ridge District and the east 
part as Byertoon. The first building was a frame structure, on the 
old box-car style. There were two doors on the west end and windows 
on both sides. This was afterwards enlarged by building on to one 
end of the old structure. This building was destroyed by fire and a 
new school house, the one used at the present time, was erected. 

The new building was erected on the same site that the first build- 
ing occupied. The building was erected by John Lunsford, and cost 
approximately $1,200. 

Some, of the early teachers at the Byerton School were William 
Wilson, George Williams, Enid Martin, Alice Grimes, Marvin Munn, 
and Alden Batterschell. 

Byerton School has had the honor of having one of its students 
to graduate from Oxford University in England. This student, Tom 
Bill, was a son of 'Caffie Bill who came to this country from England. 
He whaled off the coast of California and then came to Calhoun and 
settled just north of the Byerton School. The children of the Bill 
family, one of whom was Tom, attended the Byerton School. Mr. Bill 
cut wood for the farm that he had bought, and a,t a later date he 
started a store in the neighborhood. After his death his family went 
to the west to live and it was while there that Tom wrote the exam- 
ination for a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford. He was successful in 
the examination and left for the university from which he graduated.. 
He returned to America, married, and is now living in Pasadena, 
California., and is reputed to be a millionaire. 
Hillcrest School, District No. 6 

About the year 1876, the Franklin School was constructed by the 
people of that district. The first building was made of logs and the 
land for the school was donated by Christian Kuck. The first direc- 
tors were: John S. McConnell, Benjamin Fortume, and Christian Kuck. 

Among the early teachers were: Sarah Williams of Stout, Pike 
County, Josephine Labby, and Martha Sha,rp. 

When the Hillcrest Post-office was established, the name of the 
school was changed from Franklin to Hillcrest. In 1901 a new build- 
ing was erected, and the old building was sold to the Baptist Church. 
West Panther Creek School, District No. 10 


The first building at West Panther Creek was built of logs and 
was used until 1865. The second building, a frame structure, was 
built in 1865 by donation. The present building was erected in 1917. 

The early teachers were: Hattie Galloway, John H. Clooniger, 
Robert O. Brannon, William L. Merida, Mr. Cooley, and Hattie Deen. 

There were forty-eight pupils enrolled in the school in 1932. 
Village Green School, District No. 9 

The people of the Village Green District first constructed a log 
building but it was mysteriously burned about 1880'. It was replaced 
by a frame building. The school grounds were donated by Jacob 
Crader, Jr., the deed being recorded in 1874. Both the log building 
and the frame structure were used as a meeting place for the churches 
and Sunday schools. Among the early tea.chers were: F. C. Cox 
(1879), F. M. Lynn (1880), and Albro Burns. 

A new school was built in 1925. The enrollment, in 1932, was 

East Panther Creek, District No. 1 

The district has had two school houses but no dates were given 
to the writer a,s to when they were built or how long each was in 
use. The description of the first building and its equipment would lead 
one to believe that it must have been built/ as early as the sixties. 
This building had an oak floor and the teacher's desk was the only 
desk in the room. 

Some of the teachers who served the East Panther Creek School 
were': Jef Thurston, Isaac Kade, John Benn, George Manley, Mr. 
Musgrove, Winifred F'ullan, Mace Smith, Miss Melvina Hooker, Dema 
Williams, Mrs. Andres McConnel, William Brown, Alex Labby, Ander- 
son Jackson, Emet Martin, Mrs. Frank Rose, Frank Linn and Freman 
Cory, Frank Heavener, George Ba,rtley, William Piper, Cora Retzer, 
Frank Rose, Emelius Tharp, Emma Thurston, Warn Wheeler, Al 
Couch, Alden Battershell, George Lumley, Harrison Dirking, William 
Hanks, Lee Hanks, Elmore Zumwalt, Roxie Hodge, Meridice Batter- 
shell, Iva Johnson, Verna Norton, Freeman Martin, and 0. Harpole. 

Some of the early settlers in the district were the Retzers and 
the Smiths who came from Pennsylvania. The Retzers came first 
and then wrote to the Smith family asking them to come to the 

Early accounts of the comunity tell of a visit of a Vigilence Com- 
mittee to a family accused of stealing a horse. They also mention 
the visits of bushwackers to the neighborhood during the Civil War 

The present enrollment in the East Panther Creek School is 40. 
Pleasant Dale School, District No. 8 

The first building of the Pleasant Dale District, a log structure, 
was destroyed by fire July 4, 1887. A new frame building was immed- 


lately erected to replace it. This building was used nmtil 1925, when 
the present one was built. Thirty-two pupils were attending the 
school in 1932. 

Among the early teachers of the Pleasant Dale School were: 
Jennie Pearl (1882), F. M. Lynn (1884), John Lammy, Sarah Lammy, 
Chittic Lammy, Mollie Lynn, W. W. Smith, M. E. Martin, Charles 
Temple, and E. E. Smith Miss Pearl received $30 per month in 1882 
and Mr Lynn received $40 per month in 1884. 
Silver Creek School, District No. 7 

When the first settlers arrived, probably in the 50's, they built a 
log school in the Silver Creek Hollow. This building was used both 
as >a church and a school until 1887, when a frame structure wa,s 
erected. The new building was never used as a church, but a Union 
Sunday School met in the building for some time. 

The following are some of the teachers of the Silver Creek 
School: Albert Wigand, Fred Wigand, Charles Foiles, Frank Lynn, 
Joseph Becker, William Piper, E. A. Tharp, Stephen J. Sibley, Jennie 
Sibley, William Rose,, Clo Jennings, Laura Kritz, Lena Waldheuser, 
Lela Foiies, Elba Sibley, Roxana Hodge, Mildred Walls, Charlotte 
Brangenburg, Flora Armstrong, Bessie Tozier. 

Fox Creek School, District No. 11 

The land upon which the Fox Creek School is now built was pur- 
chased in the year 1859. There was probably some sort of a log 
school at first, -and in 1873 a frame building was erected. Until about 
1900, the Fox Creek also included the territory now a part of the 
Mozier Hollow District. For many years the school b'aildings were 
•used as a place for church services. John Lammy, Sheriff of Calhoun 
County, was killed near the schoolhouse, on Sept. 26, 1881. 

The present building was constructed in 1925 and it contains two 
classrooms. It is one of the most modern buildings of its kind in the 
county. The Fox Creek District is said td be th only district in the 
county to ha,ve a Parent-Teachers Association. The 1932 enrollment 
was sixty. 

The following teachers taught in the first two buildings: Anna 
Wineland, Alta Tibbets, Frank Lynn, Emeli'us Tharp, Frank Heavener, 
Sylvester Grader, Louis Goltz, Minnie Peters, George Fulkerson, 
Charles A. Sevier, William Piper, Frank Rose, Sam Darr, and William 

Since the two-room school was erected the following persons 
have taught: Lawrence Charlton, Myrtle Benz, George Lumley (2 
years), Beatrice Foiles (2 years), Clarence Foiles, Beatrice Foiles, 
Mrs. Armstrong, Myrtle Benz, Lee Farnbach (2 years), Selma Black- 
well (2 years), Lee Farnbach, Louis Goltz. 


Mozier Hollow School, District No. 16 

Before the Mozier Hollow District was organized the pupils of 
the neighborhood went to the Fox Creek School. The present build- 
ing was erected in 190'1-1902. Some of the early teachers were: 
Myrtle Dirking, Gussie Smith, and Charles Buckanan. 

The enrollment of the Mozier Hollow School in 1932 was thirty- 
Hamburg School, District No. 17 

Long before the Civil War a log school was constructed by the 
people of Hamburg. It was located in the southwest part of the town, 
near the present site of the Waldron Hall. The second school, of hewn 
logs, v/as built about a half of a block southeast of the present school 
building. The third building was built about 1870. It v/as a large 
one-room frame structure, located on the west side of a large hill 
and about a block from the Mississippi River. About the year 1910, 
the building was enlarged by adding a large room to the south side 
of the old building. In 1924, another room was added to the west side 
of the building. This room is used by the high school. 

The school building was used for both church and school purposes 
until about 19C0. 

Among the teachers who taught in the period of 1870 to 1905 
were: Hollis Stone (1870), George Harrington, James McNabb, W. E. 
Barber, Anna E. Temple, Nellie 1 ' Hooker, James E. Nimerick, Harriet 
E. Williams, J. D. Rose, J. W. Becker, John Day, Jr. (7 terms), 
Warren Sitton, and Addie M. Fowler (19C 2-1903). A number of those 
mentioned above taught two or more terms. 
Indian Creek School, District No. 18 

Little is known of the first log school that was built in the Indian 
Creek District. Jane Kincaid describes it as a small log building, 
located about 200 yards from the home of her grandfather, Silas 
Wilson, Sr. That location would be about one-fourth mile from the 
present building, and northwest of the present site of the W. W. 
Campbell home. She remembers two teachers who served there, Jack 
Cavander and John Elledge. 

The second school building in the Indian Creek District was made 
of logs and covered with clapboaids. It was located at the inter- 
section of the Indian Creek road and the state road, just south of the 
present site of the George Swearingin home. The building had a door 
on the south side, several windows on the east and west sides, and a 
solid north wall. A blackboard was placed against the north wall. 
The seats extended from north to south, lengthwise of the building. 
They were made of split logs, smoothed on the flat side, with holes 
bored on the round side into which were driven wooden legs. A large 
box stove stood in the center of the room. While the children were 
studying, they sat facing the stove, but if they wished to write they 
would have to turn around, since the writing desks were against the 
walls of the building. 


From a report made by Henry T. Grader, the Township Treasurer 
in 1873, we get the following facts about the Indian Creek School 
of tha,t time: 

"School year, 1872-1873 

One log school, one female teacher, 22 boys and 15 girls attend- 
ing, length of term, 6 months, teacher's salary, $35. per month." 
This log building was used by the Church of Christ each year 
that it was used as a school. Some of the teachers who served in this 
building were: Ben Rannals, Lafayette Nye, Mr. Gilbert, Henrietta 
Rundles, H. S. Stone. Samuel Hollis, Sanders, Z. T. Williams, Miss 
Elizabeth McGinnis (now Mrs. Stephen McDonald), and Miss Eliza- 
beth Joslin (later Mrs. C. W. Suiersq). 

On the 17th day of May, 1875, one acre of land was given to the 
the Indian Creek District by Silas and Nancy Wilson. Upon this land 
the first frame school building was erected. It was located some dis- 
tance up the Indian Creek Hollow, at the site of the present school 
building. This building was used by the church 'until the Indian Creek 
Church was built, in 1885. 

The first teacher in the frame building was Miss Rosanna Mc- 
Ginnis. Other teachers were: H. S. Stone, Z. T. Williams, Miss Mabel 
Stone, Samuel Grader (a son of Abraham Grader), Richard Williams, 
Anna Wineland, John C. Rose, John S. Wilson, Charles Lamar, W. S. 
Wilson (4 terms), Miss Janie Hirst (now Mrs. W. S. Wilson), Thomas 
Turnba'agh, Miss Addie Fowler (now Mrs. John Day, Jr.), Charles 
Buckanan, Sadie Miller* W. E. Barber, and Charles Kinman. Miss 
Emma Bovee (now Mrs. John Foiles of Kampsville), and Harriet E. 
Nimerick each taught a summer term. Th$ last teacher in the old 
school was Miss Leta Byrd. 

A new building was erected in the summer of 1915. The con- 
tractor was John U. Roehlof Hamburg. He was assisted by Frank 
Roehl and L. A. Wilson. The first tea,cher in this building was Miss 
Leta Byrd. Others teaching before 1920 were: W. S. Wilson and Miss 
lone Grader. 

Some of the men who served for many years on the school board 
were: Abraham Grader, Henry T. Grader, Ira Lawson, Sr., Austin 
Wilson, Alfred Games, Silas Wilson, Sr., John H. Trowbridge, Jesse 
Wilson, Silas Wilson, Jr., Timothy Stone, F. W. Webster, H. H. Phillips, 
Frank Tern'us, Herman Grader, Several of these served for as many 
as six terms. 

The enrollment in the Indian Creek School in 1932 was thirty- 
Summit Grove School, District No. 12 

In the year 1847 or 1848 the people of the Summit Grove neigh- 
borhood erected a log building which was to serve a,s both, a church 
and a school. At a later date, a frame structure was erected about a 
fourth of a mile from the old cemetery. Another frame building was 


erected at the same place and was used until 1907 when a fourth 
school, also a frame structure, was built. 

Some of thee persons who taught in the district were: John Nevius, 
McAlister, William Cooley, Anderson Orr, Mill Hooker, Albert Ansell, 
Frank Lynn, William Piper, William Rose, and Miss Mattie Dean. 
Mount Hope School, District No. 15 

The first building in the Mount Hope District was built in 1874. 
The second building which is in use at the present time was con- 
structed in 19C8. 

Some of the teachers who have taught in the district since 1890 
are: Cora Toulouse (1890), Maggie Kelley (1892), Katie Williams 
(1894), Bridget Nimerick (1895), Maggie Kelley (1896-1899), Mar- 
garet Inman (1900-1903), William Page (1904), Clara Shannon (1906), 
Hanna Feidler (1907), Jessie Oden (1908), Ester Cloniger (19C9), 
Gertrude Workman (1910), Charles Sevier (1911-1912), Edwin Moor- 
man (1913), Grace Foiles (1915), Esther Hefner (1917-1919), lone 
Grader (1919-1920), Clarence Foiles, Catherine Fischer, Manuel 
Hagen, Frances Corbett, Lena Jones, and Darlene Clugsten. 

Crater School, District No. 14 

The first school building was a frame structure, erected about the 
time of the Civil War. It was used until 1900 when the second build- 
ing was erected. 

Some of the tea,chers of the Crater School were: Bridget Kelly 
(1890-1893), Charles Temple (1893-1895), Edward McDonald (1895- 
1897), Lottie Bain (1897-1899), Peter A. Gotway (1899-1910), J. Ed- 
ward Godar, Aga.tha C. Braungel, Marie Wittman, and C. S. Goddard. 

Since 1929, the district has been renting a new brick building, 
located about a quarter of a mile south of the old building, and just 
west of the post-office. 
Kampsville Public School, District No. 13 

In 1878 the first school building in the Kampsville district was 
erected. It was a frame building, about 36 feet by 40 feet, and 
located near what is now the intersection of Broadway and Locust 
Streets. The first teacher in this school was Martin DeKinder. An- 
other school was maintained a short distance up Crawford Creek. 
This school was discontinued about 1900. 

A new site for the Kampsville School was purchased from M. A. 
Kamp in 1900. The old frame building that had been used was sold 
to the Baptist Congregation, who used it for several years and then 
sold it. It is now being used as a, dwelling. A new building was 
erected upon the new site. It was afterwards remodeled, and at the 
present time it is being used by the grade school and the three-year 
high school. 

Some of the early teachers of the Kampsville School were: C. C. 
Wiegand (1890, salary $43. per month), Charles Lamar (1892), E. A. 


Tharp and Maud Ha.per ((1893), F. F. Bennett and Charles Bellamy 
(1896), Nellie Carpenter .and Frank Bennett (1898), C, Killebrew and 

F. F. Bennett (1899), Maude Haper and Tillie Eutter (1900), Henry 
Rose (1900), S. J. Sibley and Vester Darr (1901), W. M. Piper and 
Rosa Tharp (1902), W. E. Barber, Rose Tharp, and Augustus Smith 
(1903), Gussie Bartholomew and E. A. Tharp (1904), Vina Hirst and 
E. A. Tharp (1905), Saddie Utterback and G. C. Churchman (1907), 

G. C. Churchman and Winnie Johnson (1907), A. F. Auer and Winnie 
Johnson (1909), G. C< Churchman and Elizabeth Batchelder (1910). 

Degerlia School, District No. 19 

The first school in the Degerlia neighborhood was built in 1870 
on land donated by Mary Godar. The teachers of this school were 
C. C. Wiegands and Rose Ann McGinnis. The second school was 
built in 1884, and the persons teaching in this building were: Ch-arles 
Lamar, Charles Breden, J. Edward Godar, Mary Miller, >Peter Gotway, 
William Breden, Jr., and Judith Pregaldin. 

The school that is being used at the present time was built in 
1916. The 1932 enrollment was forty-one. 
Hardin Public School, District No. 20 

The first school to be built at Hardin was erected some time 
before 1859. It was in that year that James Greathouse who later 
became one of the best knownof alhoun attorneys, came to the county 
and was employed as teacher. Some of his pupils were Mrs. Lucy 
Beaty, Mrs. Ruth Lammy, and George B. Childs. After this building 
was abandoned as a school it was remodeled into a dwelling, and it 
stands today p.t its original location, on the lot just north of the 
Standard Oil Service Station. Seme of the men who taught in this 
building were: James Greathouse, John and Chittic Lammy. 

The secoud school building was erected about 1873. It was a two 
story, framo building and was located northwest of the courthouse, 
on the lot just west of the Chris Ringhausen home. Some of the 
teachers who taught here were: Albert Ansell, Mr. and Mrs. James 
Day, Mr. Osborne, C. M. Tucker (1880-1881), James McNabb (1879- 
1880, 1881-1885), W. W. Pulliam (1885-1887), William Wells, E. A. 
Tharp, John Watson, and Elizabeth Stoffle. 

This school building was destroyed by fire in the fall of 1897. 
The town hall was used until a new building could be erected. 

The school board purchased a tract of land several blocks south 
of the court house and a new two-story, three room, brick-building 
was erected. The first teachers in the new building were J. F. Lacey 
and wife. Other early teachers were John Mackelton, Charles Lamar, 
and Chris Worthy. 

A new addition to the school was completed in May, 1917, at a 
cost of about $6,000. 


The high school was organized in 1916, and the first graduating 
class left the school in June, 1919. The four graduates were Mildred 
Aderton (now Mrs. Archie Nelson of Jerseyville), lone Wilkinson 
(now Mrs. Arthur Mielke of Hardin), Mac Canan and Fred Linkogle. 
Franklin School, District No. 23 

At first there was no definite place in the Franklin District for 
holding school. Different houses and homes were used, and finally a 
small log building was erected. It was used until 1859, when a brick 
building was erected a short distance south of the log structure. This 
brick building in in use at the present time. « 

Some of the early teachers were: William Arnett, George Smith, 
William Fowler, and Mr. and Mrs. Van Duzen. Some of the pupils 
in the early days were Stephen McDonald, the Schleepers, Scpiers, 
Cresses, Mortlands, and Smiths. 

Before the Union School district was organized, the children of 
that neighborhood came to the Franklin School. Some of these chil- 
dren were the Nairns, Johnsons, and Richies. Before the Oasis Church 
was built, the church services were often held in the school building. 

Oak Grove School, District No. 21 

The first school that was held in the Oak Grove District was in a 
house on the Carl Sqnier farm. The second school was conducted in a 
house on the McNabb farm, and at a later time a house on the farm 
of John Byrd was used. All of these buildings were used in the sixties. 
The firsti building to be constructed for school purposes was in the 
year 1867 or 1868. This building was used until 1879 when it was 
replaced by a frame building. In 1916 the building that is being used 
at the present time, was constructed. 

Among the teachers who served the district in the early days 
were: Amanda Buel (later Mrs. William Wilkinson), Mr. Athy, Chittic 
Lammy, Albert Ansell, J. W. Graiford, Stephen McDonald, Mrs. 
Stephen McDonald, Hollis Stone, Z. T. Williams. 

Some of the denominations that used the Oak Grove School at 
different times as a place for church services were: the Presbyterians, 
Church of Christ, Latter Day Saints, and Methodists. 
Gilead School, District No. 22 

Since Gilead was the first county seat of the county, it is quite 
likely that there was a school established there at an early date. 
John McDonald who later became Sheriff of the county went there to 
teach in the thirties. One record mentions the fact that Peter Cart- 
wright, the famous Methodist Circuit-rider, held a meeting in the 
Gilead School, in 1848. The las.t school house erected in the Gilead 
district, was in 1902. 

Some of the early teacherds at Gilead were: Hollis Stone (1876- 
1877), Z. T. Williams, Alice Squiers, Nellie Hooker, Alta R. Tibets, 


Elmore Allen, Joseph Becker, Jennie Pearl, William E. Barber, Emilius 
A. Tharp, and Ida Bain. 

Both, the Methodist and the Lutheran Church used the Gilead 
School at different times. 
Lower Gilead School, District No.. 24 

The first school in this district was erected in the fall of 1893. 
The first teacher was Nellie Harrell, who taught two terms. The 
school was ofter referred to as "The Little Nellie School". Miss 
Addie Fowler served as the second teacher, and Maud H-aper as the 
third teacher. Others who taught there were Allie Batch, Carl Gor- 
don, and Sadie Miller. 

Before this school was organized, the pupils of the neighborhood 
went to the Gilea,d School. The; petition for a separate school was 
started by Nick Kritz, Henry Feidler, and Michael Fonck. Others in 
the vicinity signed the petition, and in a short time the new district 
was created. 

Union School, District No. 26 

The first and only school building to be constructed at Union was 
built in 1865. The contractors were Wychoff and Mallay of Meppin. 

The first teacher of the Union School was Charles Ingersol. Other 
teachers in the early times were: Mr. Athy, Mr. Owens, Dr. Milliam 
Nairn, Elmore Allen, Andrew Smith, Frank Belt, Mr. Francis Cox, 
Mattie Ellis, Olive M. Haper (1893-1894), Warren Sitton (1895), 
Walter Squiers (1896), Wm. Daugherty, Ella Squiers, and Albert 

The school term did not begin until November and lasted for only 
three months. Another term was started in the spring and was 
known at that time as "Summer School". Sometimes a different 
teacher was hired for this term. Among those who taught in the 
"Summer School' 'were: Elizabeth McGinnis, Annie McDonald, William 
Fowler, and Mrs. Soffronia Smith. 

'Church and Sunday School was conducted in the school house in 
the early days by the Church of Christ. Two preachers of this 
denomination that attended the services were Reverend Sears and 
Reverend Burns. W. W. Smith, a Methodist preacher, also held ser- 
vices in the school. In the early days, debates and spelling matches 
were held in the school house. 
Monterey School, District No. 27 

Sometime before the year 1852 a log building was erected at Mon- 
terey. It was in use in 1877 when the brick building was edected. 
The brick structure is still in use at the present time. Before 1874, 
the school was known as the "Rock Point" School. 

One of the first teachers was James Smirl, a subscription teacher. 
After the district school was organized, the first teacher was F. T. 


Belt. Other teachers in the early days were: Mr. Jenkins, Thos. Athy, 
William Cooley, Mildred Hooker, James Van Deusen, Elizabeths Van 
Deusen, Elmore Allen, Zachrey Williams, M. L. Tremain, Chas. W. 
Ingersoll, D. D. Nelsn, Mary Jane Allen, Mattie Ellis, Wm. Daugh- 
erty, and R. V. Smith. 

Stephen McDonald and Louise Crull taught in the old log build- 
ing. A "Summer School* ' was maintained in the district on about the 
same principle as at the Union School. 
Little Rock School, District No. 30 

The first building to be erected in this district was a log structure, 
erected sometime in the thirties or forties. In 1863, a new stone 
building replaced the log oiae. This building is the oldest school 
building in the county at the present time. 

Some of the early teachers were: Ann McDonald (1863), William 
Bartlett (1865). D. W. Van Deusen (1868-1869), J. F. Tribble (1881, 
salary $35 per month), R. V. Smith (1883, $40' per month), J. F. 
Tribble (1883-1884, salary $40 per month), Eliza Flanagan (1885, $30 
per month), Florence Greamba, $30 per month), 

An old schedule dated November 1874 shows 10 pupils attending 
the school, bearing only three family names: Greamba, Lippincott, 
and Keithley. Sue McCurdy was teaching and the salary was $50 
per month. The directors at the time were Hiram Keithley and D. 
E. Lippincott. 

There have been very few pupils in this district in the last ten 
or fifteen years. During a number of the school term years there 
were no pupils attending, bat it was necessary for the directors to 
hire a teacher ajid have the school opeen on each school day in order 
to keep some neighboring district from annexing the territory. The 
reason for the small number of pupils is that the district is nearly 
one hundred percent Catholic and a large parochial school is main- 
tained in the district to which most of the children go. 
Mount Victory School, District No. 25 

About the year 1840, a small log school was erected on the south- 
west corner of the Benedict Sackman farm. This building was located 
at the top of a large hill, and was usually called the "Mudsock 

In 1877, the people of the district voted upon ane w site for the 
school, and the one that was chosen was located at the foot of the 
same large hill to which previous reference has been made. The land 
upon which the new building was erected was donated by Dominick 
Zigrang. The building was a frame structure, costing about $200. 
The construction work was done by Claus Martin. Ot a later date a 
twenty foot addition was put to the front of the building. 

Some of the teachers in the early days were: Hodgen Douglas, 
Frank Cox, Mollie Bartlett, Amanda Buhl, and Hattie Moore. 

The log building was used by the Church of Christ as a meeting 
place on numerous occasions. 


Batchtown Public School, District No. 28 

District No. 28 (formerly No. 1) has had four school buildings. 
The first one was a small log building, erected sometime before 1862. 
Mrs. Sarah Plummer, one of the oldest of the Batchtown people, says 
she went to school in this building when she was six years old.. Her 
first teacher was a Mr. Atkinson. 

The second building, made of stone, was erected in 1854, and was 
still standing in 1910. Some of the first teachers in this building 
were: Mr. Strickland, Abram Yandall, C B. Golden (about 1860), 
Thomas Athy (1861-1863), John L. Lewis (1867-1868), and Mary J. 
Allen (1868-1870).. During the term of 1868-1869 there were forty- 
one boys and forty-three girls attending the school.. The directors 
at that time were Wm. Batchelder, James Davis, and James Berrey. 
The term was six months and the salary of the teacher was $40. per 
month. Z. T. Williams taught in this building in 1874 for $55 per 
month, E. E. Musgrove in 1875 for' $50, Fred Linley in 1878 for $60. 
The spring term of this year was taught by J. F. Tribble. This was 
Mr. Tribble's first term. Anna Lindley taught in 1878 and 1879 and 
Mr. Tribble again taught in 1889 and 1881. 

The third school was a two-story, two-room, brick building and 
it was erected in 1881. Z. T. Williams was the first teacher (1881- 
1882), end Mary S. Day taurht the spring term of that year. Hattie 
C. Moore taught in 18882-1883, T. B. Smith in 1884-1885, and Jennie 
Hof, the spring term. Mr. Tribble came back to Batchtown in 1885 
-and taught each year from then until the year 1908. 

The present building was erected in 1912 on the same grounds 
as the two-story building. This building has three rooms, is built of 
,red brick, and has a seating capacity of 110. Some of the first teach- 
ers were : Margaret Inman, Cora Smith, Irma Wallendorf , Minnie 
O'Donnell, Rose Bin, D. W. Story, T. B. Mills, Rose Bailey, Letitia 
Mortland, E. C. Rose, Lucy Wilkinson, and Ross Twichell. 

The High School was organized in 1891 with E. C. Rose as prin- 
cipal He taught two years and was followed by Glenn Nevius who 
served until 1933. Miss Cora Smith has taught in the primary room 
since 1910. 

Some of the early township treasurers were: A. C. Wilson (1856- 
1861); George B. Smith (1861-1867); John Lowe (1867-1880); R. C. 
Beaty (1880-1890); and A. B. Lowe (1890-1910). 
Nicholas School, District No. 29 

The first b'uilding in the district was made of logs. It was later 
replaced by a frame building and v/as used until the present building 
was erected in 1916. 

Among the early teachers were: Wm. Arnott (1858), S. W. Jones 
(1859), A. .G. Ansell, Stephen McDonald, Jersey Coner, Elmore Allen, 
Heziah Cash, Dr. I. S. Berrey, J. F. Tribble, A. L. Wiegand, R. L. 
Smith, Clara Greamba, and Edward Canan. The school was named 
after John Nicholas, an early settler. 



Western School, District No. 32 

The school building used at the present time in the Western Dis- 
trict was erected sometime between the years 1850 and 1855. But 
before the erection of this building there were two other buildings 
that were used, but we do not know the date of erection of either. 
The first one was located about a mile west of the present building, 
while the second one was across the road from the building in use 
at the present time. In 1898, the present building was enlarged. 

Some of the early teachers were: Sue Houghtland, Mrs. Green, 
Sue McCurdy, Levi Guthrie, Charles Watson, R. V. Smith, A. W. 
Wiegand, E, J. Canan, Anna Eaton, Elizabeth Stcffle, Walter Squiers, 
William Tharp, Ella Fowler, Emilius Tharp, J. R. Hardesty, and Henry 

Liberty School, District No. 33 

The first building in the Liberty District was erected in 1848. 
The first teacher in this building was General Brown. The building 
continued to be used until 1905, when it was moved away and replaced 
by a new frame building. This second building wcs used until its 
destruction by fire, in 1923. A new building, one of the finest rural 
schools in the county, was erected on the same site. 

Some of the early teachers were: Walter Woodward, William 
Williams, Charles Guthrie, Sarah Loonam, Susie Wurtz, C. Lammy, 
Cha,rles Ruble, William Smith, Edward Canan, Lue Springston, 
Thomas Plummer, Anna Eaton, Agnes Hagen, Ophelia Delonia, Leon 
Wurtz, Howard Bell, Fred Fiedler, and Hannah Fiedler. 

The school building was used for church services for a, time. Ser- 
vices were conducted by Rev. Blockage, a Lutheran minister. 

Brussels Public School, District No. 31 

The first building of the Brussels School was located about a 
mile and a half west of the village. It was constructed about the year 
1855. The school remained at that place until about 1866, when the 
site of the old building was sold and a new site purchased from 
William Pohlman, Sr., at the foot of what is now known as the "Pohl- 
man Hill".. The old school building was sawed into two pa,rts and 
then moved to the new site. It remained here and was used for a 
school until it was blown down in a storm in March, 1913. 

The following month (April, 1913) an election wa,s held to decide 
whether a new site should be chosen and a new building erected. The 
majority of votes were for a new site and a new building. A strip 
of land was purchased from Ba.rney Pohlman for $500. This site is 
located on the corner, southeast of the Lutheran Church and a few 
hundred yards west of the site of the old school. 

The building cost about $2,500 and it was ready for use in Sep- 
tember, 1913. 


One of the first teachers in the old building was Julius Dem- 
ming. In the record of the Minutes of the Directors meeting, which 
was held on April 6, ,1855, we find that Mr. Demming was to get the 
sum of $78, for the term, but no mention is made to the length of the 
term. Other early teachers were: Francis Fitzgerald (1858), Talman 
Andrews (1860), John F. Nolte) (1865-1866. Mr. Nolte received $35. 
per month. Other teachers were: Sarah Lammy, Charles Flanagan, 
Marion Todd, A. D. Foiles, Johanna Fiedler, Henry Wiegand, and 
William Dougherty. Herman Imming taught ten successive terms 
(1875-1886) at $35. per month. 

Before the first Brussels School was built, the children of the 
neighborhood probably attended the Bethel School, which was located 
on the Thos. Andrews farm, west of Bmssels. John Lammy in his 
history of the county says that the Bethel School was the first one 
in Calhoun County, and that it was built before 1829. The records of 
the old Bethel School (or Gilman School as it was called by many) are 
still in good condition and from them we can get much valuable 
information about schools in the early days. 

The Brussels School were never used by any ch'urch as a place 
to hold services, but for a time the building was used by an organi- 
zation known as the "Sons of Temperance". 
Point Pleasant School, District No. 34 

The first building to be erected after the district was organized 
was built in 1850. B'ut there was probably a log building before the 
frame building was constructed, as school was being conducted in this 
neighborhood as early as 1829. John McDonald, who later taught at 
Gileaid, served as the first teacher. In 1870, the frame school was 
replaced by a brick building, and it continued to be used until 1917, 
when a modern and well equipped building was built in the district. 

Some of the teachers in the early days were: Mrs. Cash, Miss 
Kibbie, John Lammy, Albert Weigand, John Watson, Thomas Plum- 
mer, Grant Auer, Charles Watson, Rose McNabb, Elmore Allen, Mrs. 
Lottie Hopkins, Charles McNabb, Sara Lammy, Chittic Lammy, and 
Tod Andrews. 

In about the year 1870, the school was used by the Methodists as 
a in which to hold church services. 

Fruitland School, District No. 36 

The Fruitland District is one of the smallest, but at the time of 
its organization there were a great many people living m the neigh- 
Dorhood, due to the fact that a coal mine and a quarry were located 
in the district. 

The school house was built in 1905 and there were between fifty 
and sixty pupils in the district at that time. Some of the early 
teachers were Siebert Elder and Edward J. Canan. 
Keck School No. 1, District No. 35 

There are two schools in District No. 35 and they are known as 


Keck No. 1 and Keck No. 2. The smaller of the two is Keck No. 1 
which is located on the "Prairie", about a mile above the Deer Plain 
Ferry. It is a small, one story building, being erected in 1888. Before 
its erection there was a log building which had been used since 1871. 

The teachers in the log building were: Hannah Barnhart, Angie 
Cline, Sarah Ann Nicholas (spring of 1873), and George Watters. 
All of these were subscription teachers. The first district teacher 
was Cora Eexford (winter of 1877). Other district teachers who 
seerved in the old log building were: Charles Watson, John Watson, 
Albro B'urns, Douglas Baxter, Maggie Kelley, Mary McCauley, and 
Florence Greamba. 

The first teacher in the new school was Rebecca Dare. Walter 
Cockrell was another early teacher. The new building was located 
about a quarter of a mile north of the old log building. 
Keck School No. 2, District No. 35 

The first school in the distiict now known as District No. 35 was 
built about 1850 in what is now a part of Meyers' orchard. 

The first tea,cher for this school was obtained from Mcnticello 
Academy at Godfrey. This school continued to be used until about 
1893 when it was replaced by a new two story frame building, which 
was located about a half mile south of the old building. When the 
new building was erected it was the intention of the directors to have 
two teachers for the school, but a few years later the enrollment 
decreased and one of the rooms was never 'used. 

Some of the teachers who taught in the old school building were: 
George Ruckstuhl, Lucre tia Brown, Elizabeth McGinnis (spring term, 
about 1871), Todd Andrews, John B. Miller, C. W. Jones, Spaulding 
Brown (2 terms), Milton Brown, Carleton Woodward, Jemima HofT, 
Rebecca Dare, and Grant Auer. 

The fust teacher in the new schocl was E. B. Legate. Others 
who taught in this building before 1910, were: W. W. Fulliam, Tom 
Plummer, Elmore Allen, Nona Haper, J. Edward Godar, Stephen J. 
Sibley, and Otto Snyder. 

One of the directors in the early days wr,s Peter T. Carpenter, 
who served for more than twenty years. 

The buildings that were constructed, Keck No. 1 in 1888 and Keck 
No. 2 in 1893, were built from a fund left by the Will of Mr. Keck. 
The money left to the district could be used for two purposes. Part 
of it could be used for the building of the two new schools and the 
remainder was to be loaned out and the interest was to be used to 
provide free text books for the pupils and to pay the salary of the 
teachers. The amount that was out on interest was large enough 
that no school taxes were levied until recent years. 

Mr. Keck was born in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, and came to 
Calhoun County at an early date. Mr. Francis Marshall and he 
batched together until 1853. He died December 16, 1871. 



History of Calhoun Churches 

The first churches to become important in Calhoun before the Civil 
War were 1 the Catholic, Methodist, and Church of Christ. 

The circuit riders of the Methodist Church entered the county 
at an early date. Peter Cartwright, most famous of the circuit riders 
of the west, had charge of the district, of which Calhotui was a part. 
In his "Autobiography" he does not mention Calhoun by name, but 
tells of being in the neighoring counties. He said, "I was the first 

preacher who ever held a camp meeting in the Military Tract 

We held a camp meeting in Pike County in 1827." During the same 
year he had attended a Quarterly Meeting in Madison County and on 
returning north passed through <Xhoun County. "I crossed the Illin- 
ois River," he said, "on to the Military Tract, aiming for the Atlas 
Circuit Quarterly Meeting . . . several families had moved out here. 
and had been living here three or four years, and perhaps, had never 
hear a sermon since they had settled in the new country." In 1836 
Rev. Cartwright's district embraced all of the territory between the 
Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers from the mouth of the Illinois to 
the Wisconsin line. 

After 1840, Catholic priests use to come to the county occasion- 
ally to say Mass. The Methodists had an advantage over the Cath- 
olics since their organization permitted the use of local preachers in 
the community to take care of the church in the absence of the 
circuit rider. By 1863 the Methodist had two churches in the county ; 
one at Hardin with a membership of 145, and one at Summit Grove 
with 35 members. In the same year there were seven Sunday Schools 
which had forty teachers and officers and two hundred and twenty 
scholars. By the year 1874 the Summit Grove Church had one hun- 
dred and eighty-nine members and Hardin had one hundred and 
sixteen members. There were two ministers and three local preachers 
living in the county at the time. The Methodist Church lost many 
of its members when other Protestant churches were organized. 

The Church of Christ entered the county many years before the 
Civil War. They did not build any churches but held many meetings 
in different parts of the county. Probably the first Church of Christ 
that was organized in the county was at Indian Creek. The old log 
school, that stood at the mouth of the hollow, was used at a meeting 

The connection between the churches and the schools in the early 
days is very close. Often a building would be erected with the under- 
standing that it was to be used as a church and a school. A few of 
the schools were still being used by the churches as late as 1910. No 


churches were ever built in Gilead Precinct, but school houses were 
frequently used by different denominations, 

A summary of the history of the different churches of each pre- 
cinct will be given on the following pages. 

Churches of Point Precinct 


One of the first churches to be organized in Calhoun was the 
Catholic. Church at Brussels. The earliest Catholic settlers near 
Brussels were Irish and French. They had no church building and no 
resident priest. 

In 1843, a great number of Germans began to arrive and settle in 
the Brussels neighborhood. In 1848, under the leadership of Casper 
Blooms and Theodore Schleeper, a church was constructed. This was 
a frame building 40' feet by 30 feet, with four living rooms to the back 
of the building. It was located, on the land at the northwest corner 
of the Catholic Cemetery where the house of Joseph Menke, Sr., later 
stood. By 1850, thirty Catholic families had arrived. Among them 
were the Kelleys, Cunninghams, Glea,sons, McCauleys, Wittmonds, 
Telkamps, Blooms, and Schleepers. 

Until 1852, there was no resident priest, but in that year Father 
John Molitor, a Belgian Priest, arrived. He lived but three months 
after taking up his work in the community. After his death the people 
of the parish decided to name the little village "Brussels" after 
Father Molitor's native city, Brussels, Belgium. 

Father S. J. Nerreydt served for a short time and was succeeded 
by Fa,ther J. C. Regal who served from 1853 to 1860. During his 
stay he established a mission at Michael, which was twenty-four 
miles to the north. After seven years of strenuous work in the 
county he died and was buried in the Brussels Cemetery. 

During the time of Father C. Raphael, who served until 1863, 
five acres of land were given to the church by Theodore Schleeper and 
work on a new church was started. The church, a brick structure 
forty feet by eighty feet, was completed in 1863. A new residence 
for the priest had been completed during the previous year. Father 
Peter Rustemeyer served from 1863 to 1865 and from 1867 to 1870. 
It was due to his efforts that the Sisters of St. Joseph from St. Louis 
were secured and a Catholic School established. During the period 
of 1865 to> 1867 when he was away his place was taken by Father 
Marks, a native of Bavaria. 

In the year 1871, Father Bla,sius Winterhalter was appointed 
pastor and served until 1907, a period of 36 years. It was through 
his efforts that a new priest's home and a hall were constructed. 
Father Joseph Mauer served from February to November, in 1907,, 
and he was followed by Father Joseph Becker who remained until 


1910. Father A. J. Stengel came in that year. During his stay he 
secured the Sisters of the Precious Blood to replace the Sisters of St. 
Joseph who had left the parish. A new two story brick home was 
constructed as a home for the Sisters. 

Father John J. Brune was appointed to the parish in 1919 and 
served until July, 1924, at which time Father Henry B. Schnelton 
became the pastor. 

In the fall of 1930 a new Catholic School was dedicated by Bishop 
James A. Griffin of Springfield. 

To the west of the village of Brussels,f many Germans of the 
Lutheran faith settled. They founded a congregation on October 31, 
1861, with Reverend J. F. Buenger of St. Louis conducting the first 

On May 6, 1862 Revenend R. Biederman was installed as the first 
resident pastor. The contract for the building of the church was given 
out in 1862. A tower was added to the building in 1891. In 1909 a 
parochial school was conducted near the church. In the summer of 
1922, a new home for the pastor was constructed. 

When the church was first organized, the Lutherans of the Batch- 
town neighborhood attended the church, but about the year 1893 they 
withdrew from the Brussels congregation snd organized a church at 
Batchtown. They withdrew because of the distance between their 
town and the Brussels church. 

The Ebenezer Methodist Church was built on the Thomas Andrews 
place, aboHit three miles west of Brussels, in the year 1870. Rev. 
Charles Atkinson, a, circuit rider, was the first pastor. The circuit 
at that time included four points, Hardin, Oasis, Batchtown, and 

The trustees of the church were: Dr. Robert Andrews, William 
Love, and Gus Greamba. Those a.ctive in church and Sunday school 
work were: Sue McCurdy, Candace Greamba, C. W T . Jones, William 
Love, Caroline Jones, and Lucinda Lippincott. 

Reverend Atkinson was succeeded by the following ministers: 
H. C. Turner, H. M. Short, Howard Miller, Rev. Howard, J. Stout, W. 
S. Hawkings, W. S. Reid, P. L. Turner, and W. S. Bailey, Jr. Rev- 
erend Bailey was the last of the ministers to serve the congregation. 

The Ebenezer Church was destroyed by fire in 1889, and was 
never rebuilt. Sometime later a church was constructed at Beechville 
and many of the members of the Ebenezer Church attended this 
church at Beechville. 


Churches of Richwoods Precinct 


The first building of the Batchtown Methodist Church was con- 
structed in 1876. A deed, signed by William Batchelder and wife, 
gave the property upon which the church was built, to the Trustees 
of the "Richwoods Methodist Church". The trustees at that time 
were: A. C. Wilson, James Berrey, C. W. Twichell, James Watson and 
Henry Flagge. The present building was constructed in 1891, John 
Earley being the contractor. 

The early ministers were: Charles Atkinson, H. M. Short, H. C. 
Turner, and H. P. Carson. Rev. Carson was the pastor of the small 
Presbyterian congregation at Hardin. During the years that be 
served as pastor, 1876-1886, he resided at Hardin and held services at 
Batchtown, Casis, Hardin, Hamburg, Summit Grove, and Kampsvilie. 
He made his rounds on a small pony and for the first year of his 
pastorate he was paid about $400. 

Before the building of the M. E. Church at Batchtown, most of 
the church services were in the nature of revivals, and after the 
revival, the minister who, had conducted it, returned only for a few 
services and depended 'upon the people to keep up the interest by 
means of Sunday School and prayer meetings. Services were held by 
different protestant ministers in the stone school which was built 
about the year 1852. 


Before the year 1900, the Catholic families in and about Batch- 
town had to go over the dividing ridge to Meppen in order to attend 
church services. Soon after 1900 the people asked Father Wand of 
St. Joseph's Church at Meppen to come to their town once a month 
and say Mass. He consented and the Old Rock School building was 
•used for a time, but it was too small to accommodate the congrega- 
tion, so the Woodman Hall was procured. After a year or two the 
Weishaup Hall was rented and this building was used until a church 
was built. 

In 1909, the people decided to build a frame church and the late 
John Eageny was chosen to do the work. The corner stone was laid 
on Thanksgiving Day, 19C9. The building was completed on August 
1, 1910. 

The first pastor of the church was Father Wand of Meppen. In 
the latter part of 1910 he was succeeded by Father J. B. Wardein of 
Meppen who had charge of the parish until 1919. Father S. C. Schau- 
wacker served the people Until 1924 at which date Father Jerome 
Morley was made the first resident pastor of the St. Barbara Church. 
During this stay in the parish a new home for the pastor was erected. 
In 1930, Father A. J. Blesser was appointed pastor. 


For twenty-two years the Lutheran people of the Batchtown 
neighborhood attended church at Brussels. But to do this was rather 
difficult because of the distance and the bad roads in the winter 
months. So they decided to organize a church of their own at 

Thel land upon which the church was built was given by Henry 
Johnes, Sr., and Dr. J. R. Dougla,s. A bell was donated by Henry 
Jacobs. The contractors for the new building were Joe Robeen and 
Henry Woehler. The corner stone for the building was laid sometime 
in May or June of 1893, and in the fall of that year the church wa,s 
completed and the dedication services were held. 

Some of the first members of the Lutheran Congregation were: 
Henry H. Johnes, Charles F. Mager, Herman Becker, William Dorris, 
Henry Woeler, Fred Gruck, August Brinkman, John Krashel, Fred 
Mager, Justis Franke, Gustav A. Becker, Otto H. Becker, J. C. Gueck, 
and T. P. Broadhack. 

J. R. Raush was the first pastor. Other ministers were N. P. 
Fedderson, organizer from St. Louis, O. C. Horn, who was stationed 
Kampsville, W. E. Barchers, L. Baumgartuer, Walter Bloomkamp, 
Herman Schreck, Frank Wiegman, and Fred Branschitsch. The last 
two men named were stationed at Brussels. The present pastor is 
Rev. C. G. Georgi. There are 85 members of the church, representing 
50 different families. 


After the burning of the Ebenezer Church in 1889, the people of 
Point Precinct and the southern part of Richwoods Precinct had no 
Methodist Church nearer than Batchtown. About 1913 a church was 
constructed at Beechville. The land was given by B. F. Ingle and 
wife to the trustees, F. C. Deverger, Columbus Ingle, Clem Wallendorf 
and W. W. Smith. 

The first minister of the church was Rev. Lackey. The active 
members were: W. W. Smith, Ida Ingle. F. C, Deverger, Eve Dever- 
ger, Ella Ingle, and Cuba Ingle. 


The Catholic Church at Meppen was built in the year 1864. It 
is located ahout four miles north of Brussels and twelve miles south 
of Hardin. 

The first pastor of the Meppen Church was Father Francis Witt- 
baut who came to Meppen December 23, 1864. When he arrived the 
new church was not completed and he said Mass in the Henry Kiel 
house. A two-story rectory of eight rooms was built, through the 
efforts of Father Witthaut, in the year 1866. A parochial school was 
erected in 1874. After serving the parish for thirty-eight years, 
Father Witthaut resigned. He was succeeded by Father Henry 
Becker. During his stay a large pipe organ was installed in the 


church (1903), and a home for the Sisters was built in 1905. Up to 
that time parochial school had been taught by lay teachers. 

In 1908 Father J. B. Wand who served, until 1910, and he was 
succeeded by Father J. B. Wardein. The present pastor, Father S. C. 
Scha,uwecker, was appointed in 1919. During his stay a new building 
has been erected which serves as a parochial school and a hall. This 
was erected by the people of the parish in 1927. 

The first trustees of the Meppen Church were Henry Kiel and 
John Droege. The present trustees are Henry Seimer and Ben Kiel. 

Churches of Hardin Precinct 


The land upon which the Methodist Church at Oasis was built was 
given to the trustees by Capt. Thomas Mortland in 1870. The church 
trustees were: C. W. Twitchell, John Mortland, A. G. Squiers, George 
Hayn, and Augustus Smith. 

Local preachers of the church were W. P. Fowler and W. W. 
Smith. They not only preached at the Oasis Church during the 
absence of a regular minister, but often went to the other churches: 
Ebenezer, Batchtown, Hardin, and Summit Grove, and conducted 

The regular ministers who visited the Oasis Church were Charles 
Atkinson, H. C. Turner, H. M. Short and H. P. Carson. 

The Oasis Church was located, about eight miles south of Hardin 
in the southern part of Hardin Precinct. It was located on the side 
of a large hill, just west of the Hardin-Brussels highway, and a short 
distance south of the George Mortland hame. 

During the last ten years services were seldom held in the church. 
In 1932 the building was sold to the newly organized Pentacostal 
Church of Hardin. The members of this church bad the old building 
torn down, and removed to Hardin. The material was used in building 
the Pentacostal Church, and is used by that denomination at the 
present time. 


For many years the Catholic people of Hardin attended the same 
church as did the people of Michael. The first Mass to be celebrated 
in the neighborhood was at a house located three miles north of 
Hardin, at the site of the old Paul Godar home. This was in the year 
1850, and the priest came from St. Charles, Missouri. 

In 1852, the priest from Brussels came to the neighborhood once 
a month and said Mass at the home of Mr. Degerlia, Mr. Ewens, and 
Mr. Bokamp, In 1861 the log church at Michael was constructed and 
a priest from Fieldon was obtained. In 1877, Father Freimuth was 
appointed resident pastor at Michael and he was instrumental in 
having the frame church built at Hardin. This building was dedicated 


by Bishop P. J. Baltes of Alton on April 25, 1878. The priests who 
were stationed at Michael attended the Hardin Church and were 
Father Summers, Father Johannes, and Father Connelly. 

In 1908 rectory was built and the first resident priest, Father 
Kelly, was installed. Other priests who served before 1910 were 
Father Francis Smith and Father O'Flarethy. In 1910 Father Edward 
Hickey was appointed. It was due to the efforts of Father Hickey 
that the new church was built in 1914 and 1915. On November 1, 1915 
Reverend Michael Enright succeeded Father Hickey. He remained in 
the parish until 1922, at which time he was succeeded by Father Daniel 
Daly who is serving the parish at the present time. 

The parochial school was organized in 1928. 


In 1932, the newly organized Pentacostal Church of Hardin puc- 
chased the old Oasis Church building, and used most of the material 
in that building in constructing a building of their own, which is 
located about three blocks northwest of the court house. The dedi- 
cation services were held on Thanksgiving Day, 1932. 

Among the founders of the church were: Brother L. L. Hampton 
of Jerseyville, Mr. and Mrs. Cochran of Granite City. Among the 
first members were: Mrs. Edith Watson, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Cook, 
William Lawson, and A. H. Hopkins. 

This is the first Pentacostal Church to be established in the 
county. The present membership is about thirty. The Sunday School 
has fifty members, and the Young People's Organization has about 
eighteen members. The present pastor is Rev. T. D. Peach. 


The Presbyterian Church at Hardin was organized October 17, 
1851, with a membership of twenty-five. They conducted services in 
the dining room of the Childs home, then in the court house, and at a 
later time in the old public school building. 

The people then decided to construct a building of their own. The 
la,te Alexander Crader of Hamburg was in Hardin the day that the 
first services were held in the church. He said: 

"On July 21, 1872, I stood and watched Henry Fisher nail the 
steps to this church building, while the people were going into their 
new place of worship." 

The building was dedicated on October 17, 1872. On the same day 
H. P. Carson was ordained and installed by the Alton Presbytery. 

This church building was destroyed by fire in 1908. The Calho'un 
Republican of November 21, 1908 said: 

"The Trustees of the Hardin Presbyterian Church have let a con- 
tract for the building of a new church to replace the one that was 
destroyed by fire on August 27th, to H. J. Eiberlin of Hardin whose bid 
was $600 under a St. Louis contractor." 


The building was, completed and dedicated on May 17, 1908. In 
the fall of 1925, the building was enlarged. A modern pipe organ, 
probably the only one in a Protestant church in the county, was given 
to the church by Chris Ringhausen. 

The membership of the church in 1931, was about 147. The Sun- 
day School had 250 members and is said to be the largest in the county. 
Wm. Fisher has served as the Superintendent for the past twenty-five 
years. The record of perfect attendance is held by Roy N. Bailey, who 
has not been absent since January 1, 1917. 

Churches of Crater Precinct 


Between the years 1850 and 1852 there were a n'umber of Catholic 
families living in what was called the "Gleason Settlement" which was 
located between Michael and Hamburg. Jesuits from St. Charles, 
Missouri, came to the neighborhood and ministered to the people. 

In 1852 Father Molitor was appointed to the Brussels parish, and 
he came to the home of Antione DeGerlia once a month and said Mass. 
Father Regal of Brussels served from 1853 to 1859. He was succeeded 
by Father Rap-ael who celebrated Mass in the home of Mr. DeGerlia, 
Leonard Ewen, and Mr. Bokamp. 

In 1871 a small log church was constructed. Three and a half 
.acres of land which is now church property was donated by Andrew 
Ulrick, who then owned the land. 

In 1864 Meppen received its first resident pastor and from that 
time until 1871, the Michael congregation was attended twice a month 
by a priest from either Meppen or Brussels. In 1871 Father Quitter 
of Fieldon had charge, but from 1872 to 1877 it was a,gain in charge 
of priests from Brussels or Meppen. 

In 1877 Father Friemuth was appointed resident pastor and he 
started mission churches at Hardin and Kampsville. He was followed 
by Father C. A. Sommc-rs who came on December 8, 1878 and remained 
until 1892. During his stay he built a new parsonage (1883) and a 
new frame church (1884). 

Rev. Clement Johannes came to Michael July 4, 1892. He had the 
present parsonage constructed soon after his arrival. He also had the 
parsonage at Kampsville constructed and was the first resident there. 
Father Connelly came in November 1895 and remained until 1905, when 
he was succeeded by Father J. B. Wardein. He worked in the parish 
until 1910 when he was succeeded by Father Hickey of Hardin who 
served the needs of the parish until the appointment of Father Kip- 
pling. He remained until 1912 and was succeeded by Father O'Mul- 
lane who remained as the pastor for nine years. On November 1, 1921 
Father Sheehy was sent to the parish and he is serving at the present 


time. In 1929 a new building was constructed. This serves as a home 
for the Sisters and as a school building. 


About the year 1905 or 1906, the members of the Baptist Church 
at Kampsville bought an old school building and used it as a church 
building until 1912. At that date a new concrete block building was 
erected, the cost of which was about two thousand dollars. The old 
school that ha,d been used was sold for six hundred dollars and the 
money w T as 'used in building the new church. 

The first members of the church were: Dr. Y. O. Hardesty, John 
Oettle, Maud Panteous, Rebecca Piper, Carrie Quiller, and Mollie Hayn. 

The first Sunday School was organized in 1910, and its member- 
ship at the present time is about twenty-five or thirty. The Baptist 
Church is attended by nine families with a total membership of forty. 

Among the pastors who served the Baptist Church a,t Kampsville 
were: D. D. Ballard, 0. A. Garineon, W. M. Gaither, Wm. Lumley, and 
Fred Probst. 


In the year 1897, the Presbyterian Church was organized at 
Kampsville. Thomas Haynes was sent from the Presbytery of Alton 
to organize the church, but the sentiment had been created and fos- 
tered by Rev. M. A. Stone, Sunday School Missionary, who first or- 
ganized the Sunday School. 

The charter members were: Mrs. Maggie Cloniger, Mrs. Becky 
Piper, Mrs. Reca Thomas, Miss Dinah Becker, Charles A. Piper, Miss 
Katie Becker, John Ranolde, Miss Mary Farrar, Mrs. Mary Lawler, 
Miss Bernice Hauser, Roy Farrar, Miss Delia Armstrong, Miss Louise 
Miller, John Oettle, Fred Oettle, Mollie Oettle, Fred Eipper, Mary 
Zipper, and Miss Flora Armstrong. 

When the church was first organized, the services were held in 
the school house. Later they were held in the hall over the Rose 
Store. The present building was erected in 1908. The lot upon which 
the church stands was purchased from Dr. R'unde for three hundred 
dollars.. The building cost about $2,500. 

The Sunday School was organized by Rev. Ml .A. Stone. One of 
the men who has done much for the church is Mr. C. P. Becker. His 
four sisters were charter members of the church but did not unite 
with it until later. It was through his efforts that the new church 
was built and paid for. 

Some of the pastors who served the church were: George B. 
Smith,, James R, Sager, C. P. Grahma, Thomas A. McElewain, S. S. 
Moore, W. J. Caldwell, W. B. Worrel and Lyle D. Stone the present 
pastor. Reverend, Stone has been the pastor of the church for the 
past two years. 

The church has about forty-five members and the average at- 
tendance at the Sunday School is about one hundred. 



The Catholic congregation of Kampsville was organized in 1877 
as a mission. It was attended by Father Otto Freimuth who was the 
pastor of St. Michael's Church at Michael. During that year a, frame 
church building wa,s erected. It was 75 feet by 35 feet by 50 feet, 
with a steeple 80 feet high. Morris Fisher of Hardin was the con- 
tractor, and the cost of the building was about $2,500= The land upon 
which the buildings were erected was donated by M. A. Ramp. He 
also donated three .acres for use as a cemetery. The first trustees were 
M. A. Kamp, Joseph Hayn, and Bernard Kinscheriff. 

The Church was dedicated in the fall of 1877 and the bells were 
blessed on April 24, 1878. The church was served as a mission by 
Father Sommers, 1878 to 1892, and by Father C. Johannes from 1892 
to 1897. He had the present ten-room rectory built during his stay. 
On November 1, 1895 he was appointed the first resident pastor. 
Father DuVal served from 1897 to 1901. 

The first parish school was opened in 1898 with the Sisters of 
the Precious Blood in charge. Father F. X. Sturm came in 1901 and 
remained for a short time. FaJier Reinhart, the assistant at Michael 
looked after the parish until the arrival of Father A. Ulric in No- 
vember 1902. He remained in service of the parish until hisi death 
in 1909. His body was buried in the center of the Catholic Cemetery 
•at Kampsville. 

On Palm Sunday, 1909, Father F. Neveling came to the parish 
and remained in the parish until 1911, when he was succeeded by 
Father Edward Douglass. During his stay a new home for the Sisters 
was built and a new building to replace the parish school, which had 
been destroyed by fire. 

Other pastors who have served the church in recent times are: 
Father James A, Telkamp (1919 to 1922), Father George E. Faller 
(1922 to 1924), Father A, J. Blesser (1924 to 1930), and Father Jerome 
Morely, who is serving at the present time. The parish now numbers 
about eighty families. 


When the first German settlers of the Lutheran faith came to 
northern Calhoun, they settled in the Hillcrest neighborhood and in 
the hills west of the present site of Kampville. Those settling west 
of Kampsville built a small church near what is now called the 
"Hauseman Cemetery". For many years the building remained there 
and then it was moved to Kampsville (then called Farrowtown). Some 
of the ministers who served when this building was in use were: Rev. 
Bremer (1870), H. Reichman (1871-1873), W. Wilkine (1873-1875), 
Hornbastel (1875-1877, Ludwig (1877-1880;, Schaberhorn (1880-1881), 
Kerstan (1881-1886), Lieberherr (1889-1892). 


The present church building was constructed in 1894 during the 
time that Rev. W. C. Borchers was serving the congregation. 

Rev. Kavasch served the church after Rev. Borchers Others who 
served as pastors were: Rev. Baumgaertner (1905-1907), Rev. Shultz 
(1909-1929), Rev. E. Wiedenhoeffer of Brussels (1929-1930), and the 
present pastor, Karl J. Baumgart, who came in July, 19*0. 

A parochial school was maintained until about 1920. The pastors 
served as the teachers of the school. 

The membership of the church is 280 baptized members, 53 vot- 
ing members, and 145 communicant members. 

Churches of Belleview Precinct 


The Baptist Church of Hillcrest was organized July 19, 1897 by 
J. M. Hartly, a, missionary worker, under the direction of the North- 
ern Baptist Association. 

The charter members were: Hester Dierking, Emma Likes, Levi 
Thomas, Emma Th'omas, Perry Day, Parthena Foiles, Mrs S. M. Ash, 
and William Likes. 

Levi Thomas and Perry Day were elected deacons and George W. 
Trash of Roodhouse was the first pastor. The services were held in 
the old school building until the present building was dedicated, July 
2, 19C5. The dedication sermon was preached by Edward Ford. 

A Union Sunday School has been maintained at Hillcrest for 
fifty-six years. John Connell was the first superintendent and Sarah 
Williams, Mattie Tharp and Josephine Labby were charter members. 

The church is a member of the Bay Creek Baptist Association. 
The membership in 1932 was 132. Rev. Fred Probst of Nebo was 
serving as the pastor at that time. 

The Sunday School has 125 members on the roll, with an average 
attendance of 68. Floyd Freesmeyer is the present superintendent. 
The Sunday School has contributed to the South African Missions for 
many years. 


The church was organized in the year 1860. The earliest mem- 
bers were the Quillers, Martins, and Sudbracks. The present church 
building was constructed in 1877. The land for the church and the 
cemetery was donated by Christian Kuck. 

The services have usually been conducted by the Lutheran Pastor 
from Kampsville. Services are held every second, Sunday at 2:30 P. 
M. The membership is small at the present time. Rev. C. Baumgart 
of Kampsville serves as the pastor. 


This is the only church of this denomination in the county and 


possible in this part of the state. The church is located in Howell 
Hollow, some distance north of the Elm Grove School. 

The church was built in 1901 by W. A. Guthrie, Marion Johnson, 
L.nd Timothy Johnson with the aid of some of the people in the com- 
munity The building" is 22 feet by 40 feet, and was dedicated in the 
year 1904. ' 

Regular services are usually held, with W. A. Guthrie serving as 
the local pastor. The church has a.bout twenty-five members end the 
Sunday School has twenty members. 


The Church of Christ at Farmers' Ridge was organized in 1856 
by J. W. Greer and James Burbridge. 

Until 1882, the Farmers' Ridge School was used as a place of 
worship, but in that year the school district was divided and a new 
school was built at a different site. The church then purchased the 
old school building and a piece of land on the opposite side of the road 
from where the school stood. Since the old school building had been 
purchased at a reasonable price and most of the Labor on the remod- 
eling of the building was donated, the people were able to have a 
building of their own for less than four hundred dollars. The present 
building was erected in 1898. 

The leading members in 1875 were: Samuel Bunn (Elder), James 
Dyson (Elders), A. W. McConnel, J. A. .Bunn, L. E. White (Deacon), 
G. H. Hank (Clerk). 

The present organization is: A. W. Bunn and D. E. Bunn, Elders; 
A. Battershell and L. C. Turnbeagh, Deacons; D. E. Bunn, Clerk; and 
A. W. Bunn, Treasurer 

The ministers who have labored since 1875 are: John Mclntire, 
David Foremen, C. H. Maynard, J. W. Miller, Ezekial Burns and Rich- 
ard Williams. All of these were local men. In more recent times J. 
C, Roady, T. D. Roady, C, W. Witty, and J. C, Dunn have served. 

At the present time Elder Jesse Smythe and Elder John Wilson 
preach at the church occasionally. Elder J. G. Bunn, now of Winatche, 
Washington, conducted the Last revival, in 1931. 

There are about forty members enrolled in the Bible School at. 
the present time. The church membership numbers about 100. 


The Catholic Church a,t Belleview was built in 1900. Father 
Duval, the pastor of the Kampsville Church, was instrumental in 
having it built. It is a brick building 40 feet long, 20 feet wide, 30 
feet high, with a 60 foot tower. 

At the time that it was built there were a,bout twenty families in 
the parish, but that number has since decreased. Services are now 
held in the church the first Sunhay of each month. Some of the early 
members were: J. C. Harrison, Will Osterman, and Mr. Seifers. 



In 1869 a building was constructed at Belleview that was used as 
both a church and a school. The Methodist Church of Belleview is 
mentioned in the Minutes of the 1871 Conference of the Methodist 
Church. According to the report there were 50 members, 2 churches, 
1 parsonage, and 3 Sunday Schools which had a total of 20 officers 
and teachers, 110 members and a library of 500 volumes. W. W. Smith 
was listed as the pastor. These figures probably included the Sum- 
mit Grove Cchurch, as reports made in previous years had listed 
Summit Grove and had not mentioned Belleview. Since the two 
churches were not far apart, services were probably held at both 

About 1893 a Methodist Church was built at Belleview. Some 
of the first members of the church were: Mary Keightly, Martha 
Childs, and Mr. and Mrs. Emmett Bennett. The church seldom had a 
resident pastor but was served by the ministers from Summit Grove 
and Hamburg, or by local preachers. 


On the 19th of July, 1920, Brother J. C. Roady and Brother C. C. 
Hanks came to Belleview and raised a tent and began a series of 
meetings. The first of the meetings was attended by about seventy- 
five people. Meetings were held each night for about a month. On 
August 15th, the night of the last meeting, a congregation was formed 
and thirty-nine people joined. A number of these were baptized and 
others came from other congregations. 

In this meeting the people decided that a church should be erected 
Brother Warren Wilson donated the land upon which the tent was 
then standing. 

The members banded themselves together with the understanding 
that they were to take the Bible as their rule of faith and practice, 
and to carry on the work as taught by Jesus through his Apostles. 
On the records of the church are the names of about nkiety members. 
But some of the people whose names are there have since died while 
others have follen away. At the present time there are about fifty 
members that are in good standing. John S. Wilson serves as the 
local preacher for the congregation. 

Churches of Carlin Precinct 


The church was first organized, in 1870, under the name of the 
East Panther Creek United Baptist Church. They did not have a 
church building, so the meetings were held in the school or in the 
home of some of the members. The founders of this church were 


Henry Strungham and William Seago. Some of the early members 
were: John W. Ellege, Elizabeth Ellege, Charles Matthews, Rebecca 
A. Thurston, ,Mary Saunders, Nancy Miller, Matthews Dorset, John 
Wash, Susie E. Ash, Charles C. Curtis, Nels Tharp, James Tharp. 
This organization was dissolved at a later date. 

Subsequently, in 1897, the Pleasant Dale Baptist Church was or- 
ganized, the leaders being J. M. Hartley and William Tharp. A 
building was constructed by popular subscription in 1897. The land 
upon which the building is located was donated by Turner Lumley. 
He also donated all of the timber for the frame of the church. He 
was not a member of the church but one of his sons later became a 
leading Baptist minister. The church has about thirty members and 
there are fifty members in the Sunday School. 


A church was built by the Church of Christ in the East Panther 
Creek District in 1917, but services have not been held in the building 
for some time. Some of the early members were: Ed Field and fam- 
ily, George Smith, F. K Ellidge, Floyd and Clem Ellidge, and Rainey 

Churches of Hamburg Precinct 


The Indian Creek Church of Christ was organized in 1860 by 
Wesley Miller, E. II. B'urns and John J. Greer (grandfather of John 
S. , Wilson). The church activity lagged some during the Civil War, 
but the church was reorganized in 1869 by the same group of men 
and many new members were obtained. 

The congregation did not build a church at first but used the 
school houses. They used the old log building that stood at the 
mouth of the Indian Creek Hollow and when the frame school build- 
ing was erected some distance Hip the hollow they used it. About 
1885 the members decided to erect a church building of their own. A 
frame building was erected on the state road just south of the ceme- 
tery. The land upon which the church was built was given by Henry 
T. Grader. 

Among tne members who were attending the Indian Creek Church 
in 1885-1890 were the following: Mrs. Silas Wilson, G. P. Kmcaid, 
Silas Wilson, Jr., and wife, Henry T. Grader and wife, John S. Wilson 
and wife, James Campbell and wife, H. H. Williams and wife, Elmer 
Blackorby, Sarah Crader, Elizabeth Herron, Abner Gresham, Austin 
Wilson and wife, John R. Gordon and wife, W. S. Wilson, Henry 
Crader, Jr., and wife, Isaac Crader, Ira Lawson, Sr., and wife, William 
Kincaid and wife, Austin Wilson and wife, Mrs. John S. Rosa, Jacob 
Wilson and wife, and Jesse Wilson and wife. 


Some of the ministers who served before the construction of the 
church building were: E H. Burns, Henry Mains, Wesley Miller, Mr. 
Roberts, D. Foreman, John J. Greer, James Sitton, Henry Maynard, 
Mathew Brown, Ely Williams, R. P. Williamson, and son, Donahue, 
Mr. Troutner, and John S. Wilson. 

Ministers who served the church since the building of the new 
church were: Henry Maynard, Wesley Miller, John S. Wilson, Henry 
Brainstritter, J. C. Roady, W. E. Ballinger, and many evangelist who 
served for just -a short time. 

Abraham Grader and Ira Lawson served as deacons for many 
years in the early times. Silas Wilson, Sr., Isaac Crader, and Austin 
Wilson served as elders. In the more recent times Henry T. Crader, 
Samuel Wilson, and Jesse Wilson have served for many years as 
cither deacons or elders. 


The first church services to be held in Hamburg were probably 
held under the auspices of the Methodist Church, but facts as to time 
and place of those early meetings are not available. They probably 
used the first school building, which was located near the river bank 
in the southwest part of the town. 

When W. E. Barber came to the county in 1863, services were 
being held. "Religious services", he said in a letter written in 1903, 
"were held a,s opportunity offered, but the community that could have 
services as often as once a month was fortunate. Funeral sermons 
were preached when a preacher was available, sometimes two or three 
months after burial.' ' 

The school houses of the town continued to be used as a place 
for church services until the erection of the M. E. Church in 1902. 
This was during the pastorate of Rev. C. E. Calame. During the 
erection of the building a debt was incurred end for seven years the 
people worked to free themselves from it. 

On the 29th of August, 1909, the dedication service.! were held 
and the sermon of the day was preached by President John B. Har- 
mon of McKendree College. At the time of the dedication of the 
church the pastor of the church was Rev. C. W. Moorman. The offi- 
cers of the church at that time were: President of the Ladies' Aid 
Society, Mrs. M. A. Cloniger; President of the Bible Class, Mrs. Frank 
Rustemeyer; Sunday School Superintendent, Spencer Waldron; Junior 
League Superintendent, Mrs. B H. Williams. For many years W. E. 
Barber served as the Superintendent of the Sunday School. 

In 1C32 there were 120 members in the Sunday School. Mrs. 
Sterling Varner was the Superintendent. Rev. E. B. Barrett was 
serving as the pestor. He ha,s charge not only of the 'Hamburg 
Church but Belleview and Batchtown churches. 


The Hamburg Church of Christ was organized on January 10, 


1914. W. E. Ballinger, who lived in Hamburg at the time, was one of 
the main organizers and he was aided by members of the Indian 
Creek Church and the Mozier Hollow Church. 

An old store building was purchased and remodeled into a church. 
Some of the first members of the church were: Mr. and Mrs. H. H. 
Williams, Roy Williams, Mabel Roehl, Mr. and Mrs. Harrison Camp- 
bell, Mr. and Mrs. James Charlton, Mr. and Mrs.. W. E. Ballenger, 
Mr. and Mrs. James Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. Grigsby Campbell, Sadie 
Waldron, Jennie Howdeshell, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Banker, and J. C. 

Some of the men who served as ministers or local preachers 
were: M. E. Ballinger, John Roady, G. W. Williams, Stephen Settel. 
and John S. Wilson. The church had forty-four members in 1914. 


Before the church was organized at Mozier Hollow, most of the 
people who belonged to the Church of Christ attended the church at 
Baytown.. In 1910 a church was erected in Mozier Hollow. The first 
members or founders were: Albert Sevier, Abbott Howland, Michael 
Barnes, Ed Schlieper, and Oscar Grader. The church has about thirty 

Churches of Baytown 

In 1933, we find three churches in Baytown. Each will be dis 
cussed separately and in order that the reader might not confuse the 
groups, they will be numbered in the order of their appearance. 


The Christian Church was organized in the early days, probably 
as early as the 60's or 70's. They did not have a building of their 
own, so they used the Fox Creek School building which was in the 
neighborhood. In 1898, a building was constructed in Baytown. 

Some of the first members were: Sam Merida (a trustee), Wm. 
Trowbridge (an elder and a, trustee), Alexandder Crader, Gotlieb Quil- 
ler, Wesley Bovee, (preacher), A. P. Z'umwalt (elder), Elijah Bess, 
William Thomas (deacon), Henry Darr, John Wilson, (preacher). 


N. S. Haynes in his history of the Church of Christ makes the 
following statement: 

"A controversy broke out in the Christian Church at Baytown 
over the question of the use of the organ in church and over the 
question of having Sunday School. One group opposed both of these, 
so they broke away and formed a second church, now called the 
"Church of Christ". 

This was in the year 1902 that this second church was formed. 


They built a frame church in Baytyown, near the building of the 
Christian Church. 

Some of the members of the Church of Christ were: A. P. Zum-, William Trowbridge, Albert Sevier, Sr., and William Thomas. 

They hold regular services in the church. John Wilson is the 
preacher and he visits the church each month. 


In 1927 a group of members of the Church of Christ broke away 
from that church and formed a new congregation which is also known 
as the "Church of Christ". The writer has been informed that the 
controversy was over the question of women reading in worship. 

This congregation has no regular church building but use a dwell- 
ing house. They have no regular pastor, the services being in charge 
of Ralph Kitson, William Charlton, and Val Jacobs. There are about 
25 people belonging to the church. 

Summit Grove Churches 


The first Methodist Church in North Calhoun was located at 
Summit Grove. In 1863, H. N. Howell was serving as minister and 
there were 35 members in the church. The Sunday School had 4 
teachers and 20 scholars. They usually had a resident pastor and one 
or more preachers. The membership increased to 189 members in 

In 1887 the people decided to build a church and a dispute arose 
as to where the new church and a new parsonage should be located. 
No decision was reached, so two churches were erected. One of them 
was built on the ridge near the site of the old church and near the 
Summit Grove School, while the other church was built to the north 
and down in a hollow. Only one parsonage was built, and it was 
located in the hollow. 


In 1899, the upper church was taken over by the Presbyterian 
Church, and services have been conducted by that denomination ever 
since. The pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Kampsville usually 
has charge of the Summit Grove Church. 

The lower church continued to be under the control of the Meth- 
odist Church until November 27, 1930 at which time it was taken 
over by the Nazarine Church. Services are conducted regularly at the 
church. There 1 are 27 members at the present time, a,nd the Young 
People's Organization has 24 members. 



In June, 1920, a large Tabernacle was built in the Fox Creek 
Hollow, near the site of the Nazarine Church. The first preachers 
were: A. C. Zepp and J. W. Cooper. 

Before the building of the Tabernacle, the camp meeting was 
held in a large tent which was stretched on the church grounds. 
Twenty-three camps have been held to date. The official name of the 
camp is "Hillcrest Holiness Interdenominational Camp." 



Transportation and Industries 


Calhoun County has the unique distinction of being the only 
county in the state to be without railroads. But a glance at a map 
of the county will show why this condition prevails. Due to the fact 
that most of the farms of the county were not far from steamboat 
landings on either the Illinois or the Mississippi Rivers, the boats 
were able to handle the crops of the county in a satisfactory manner. 
Railroad companies hesitated to construct a road because of the hilly 
•and rugged nature of the county, and because of the cost of bridging 
either the Mississippi or the Illinois River. At the present time the 
trucks are giving the farmers better service than railroads could ever 
hope to, so it is not likely that a railroad will ever be built in the 


Although steamboat navigation began on the Illinois River in 
1828, yet we find no record or mention of boats along the Calhoun 
shore until 1831. It was probably because the early settlers were living 
back some distance from the river, and no large villages had started 
near the river. Twichell's Landing was the first stopping place for 
the boats. The "Utility" stopped there in 1831 after a three day trip 
from St. Louis. The account of the arrival of the "Argus" in 1833 is 
told by John Lammy in his short "History of Calhoun County". His 
account is as follows: 

"In the summer of 1833, the Crader family, who were then living 
two moles north of the present site of Michael, in what is now called 
Crater Precinct, tell of hearing thundering noises from somewhere 
down the river, and they were very much alarmed. About the head 
of hurricane Island the discovered what they thought to be a house 
coming up the i.ver against the current. When it got closer they dis- 
covered that it was a steamboat by the name of the 'Argus'. The 
Graders helped the crew cut six or seven cord of wood. Young Jacob 
Crader hauled the wood to the river with a yoke of oxen and a cart. 
After 'wooding' the boat, the captain took the Crader family on the 
boat and took them about four miles up the river and back. The 
captain of the boat made arrangements whereby it was possible for 
him to get wood from the Craders each week. The price tha.t they 
received was a dollar a cord." 

In 1835 the "Don Juan" and the "America" began making trips. 
A few years later the "America" was sunk in the Diamond Island 
Slough (two miles north of Hardin) due to a collision with the 
"Friendship", a boat that started in 1836. The "America" remained 


in the water three or four weeks and was finally pulled out by forty- 
two yoke of oxen and sixty or seventy men. Most of the men were 
settlers from the neighborhood. 

The freight on these boats consisted of cattle, hogs, corn, and 
wheat. In 1845 the first grain cradle was 1 used in the county and in 
1846 the threshing machine was introduced. After the introduction 
of these the farmers were able to increase the wheat production. 

Until the coming of the hardroads and the trucks, the steamboats 
offered the only means of getting) the produce to the market or of 
getting supplies from the city. Many of the farmers and their wives 
would go to the city when their grain or cattle were shipped, and buy 
supplies for many months to come. During and shortly after the Civil 
War, steamboating was at its height. Dozens of fine steamers would 
go up and down the river each day. When the railroads became more 
numerous, the steamboat business began to decline. Other counties 
along the rivers did not have to depend upon the boats, but as lat as 
1925, Calhoun people depended upon the steamboat nearly as much 
as did the people of twenty-five or fifty years before. 


In the year 1834, J. M. Peck wrote a book in which he described 
all counties and towns of the state, In his article about Calhoun he 
tells of a canal that was being planned across the county. He says: 

"A company has been organized to cut a canal near Gilead to the 
Illinois River at Guilford, The distance does not exceed three miles 
and by tunneling a short distance Under the bluff, it is said the work 
can be accomplished at comparatively small cost. This communi- 
cation would save fifty miles navigation from the Illinois River to the 
Upper Mississippi, and as the Mississippi is elevated considerably 
above the Illinois, it would create an immense water power project,, 
which is one of the objects of the company. None of the early 
county records or the writings of the early settlers mention this 
canal, so it is possible that the company was affected by the Panic of 
1837, and all plans for the canal dropped. 

In the early days of the county the oxen were used for farm work 
and for hauling grain and logs and wood. One pioneer said: "Ox 
teams were the rule as horse teams were not considered able to haul 
loads out of the hills, roll logs, or break new ground". Another said: 
"The wheels of the wagons used in those days were sawed off ends 
of large round logs, and nothing but ox teams were known." After 
the Civil War few, if any, oxen were used by the farmers. 


For the first fifty years after Calhoun became a county, the prin- 
cipal industry was that of lumbering. Mr. Pooley in his book "The 
Settlement of Illinois", says: 


"Calhoun at the extreme southern end of the Military Tract was 
never thickly settled. The lumbering industry in which most of the 
settlers were interested, tended to make the population an unstable 
one. Here we have an ex-ample of settlement which is an exception 
to the rule. Primarily the population was one aiming to exploit the 
lumber resources." 

An early settler in speaking of this industry during the Civil 
War period said: 

"Then nearly every m-an was in some way connected with or in- 
terested in the 'lumber business' as it was called. He was either 
buying, selling, cutting, or boating staves or cordwood or engaged in 
getting out and rafting logs. Even the well-to-do farmers would 
make some! staves or cord wood during the winter to haul and sell 
during the summer and fall. By doing this he killed two birds with 
one stone; cleared the land and raised some money. Stores along the 
river usually had a sign reading thus: 'Cordwood on the Bank a Legal 
Tender.' " 

Most of the farmers and early settlers had little money so they 
would take cordwood, poles, or staves to the merchants who would 
•accept them and give the settler goods and wares in exchange. Thou- 
sands of cords of wood could be seen piled' along the river bank, to- 
gether with millions of staves and hoop poles. Sometimes the steam- 
boats would take the cordwood and staves to the market, -and some- 
times smaller boats or barges would transport them to St. Louis or 
other centers. 

When we read the biographies of the early settlers of Calhoun 
County we find that many of them worked in the lumbering business 
for several years and with the money that they saved, purchased land 
for themselves. They would continue to engage in the lumbering 
business until they had enough land cleared to begin farming. Others 
bought land immediately upon their arrival in the county and began 
to clear the land. 


There is some doubt as to where the first orchards of the county 
were planted. John Lammy in his history says that Judge Ebenezer 
Smith started a small orchard in the year 1819 on his farm about 
eight miles south of the present site of Hardin. During the past year, 
a Graduate Student from the University of Chicago wrote his Master's 
Thesis on the Calhoun apple industry, and in this thesis he says that 
the first orchard was planted on the farm now operated by Robert 
and Albert Meyer, at Deer Plain. Another account, written by Mrs. 
Caroline Dewey, tells of the first orchard as having been planted in 
the early 40's. She says: 

"Just south of us on the place now owned by C. W. Squiers, then 
owned by a man named Nailor, was an apple orchard, and I do not 


recall where there .was another one in the county. I am informed 
that some of the old trees are to be seen standing there yet (1903), 
silent witnesses to the confiscation of lots of their luscious fruits; the 
original agitators of the warfare that some day in the future, was 
to be fought between the lumbering interests on one side and the 
combined interests of horticulture and agriculture on the other side. 
That orchard was the index of the future greatness of the apple in 
this county. In the settlement of that warfare, the lumbering inter- 
ests were banished forever from the county, and the apple crowned 

It is possible that the orchard mentioned by Mrs. Dewey was the 
first in that community, and that she did not happen to know about 
the other orchards which were located south of Hardin or at Deer 
Plain. Regardless of where the first orchard was planted, we know 
that many trees were planted before the Civil War, and by 1875 the 
orchard industry had grown to be very important. 


There were a number of industries that ha,d some local importance 
at different times in the history of the county. One of the most 
interesting of these was the making of brick in Point Precinct in the 
early 80's and 90's. A reporter of the Chicago Inter-Ocean visited 
these works in 1891 and gives us the following description: 

"At a place in Point Precinct called Winneburg, is the Thomas 
Pressed Brick Company. Just as I reached the works, the "Dick 
Clyde" (a steamboat) was backing out into the current towing barges 
of pressed bricks, out of which were to be made the St. Louis Water 
Works. Five years ago, eastern capitalist found that about a small 
coal mine known a,s Thomas', there was to be found five excellent 
varieties of clay strata. A company was organized and there sprang 
into existence one of the finest brick works in the country. On account 
of the choice of shades and the execellence of the quality, an eastern 
market has been gained whose orders are now larger than can be 

For several years after the above account was written, the indus- 
try flourished, and then began to decline. This was probably due to 
a lack of a sufficient quantity of clay to supply the huge demands. 

A coal mine was started in Point Precinct, near Golden Eagle, as 
early as 1840. In the year 1882 a mine was being operated in the 
same neighborhood. But at no time was the mining operations car- 
ried on on a large scale. : Near Golden Eagle one can still see the 
small deserted village, once the home of the miners of the neighbor- 
hood. At several other places in Point Precinct, mines were opened, 
but were never successful because the coal was not present in suffi- 
cient quantities. 



Near Gilead is located what is now known -as the Great Salt 
Spring. In 1835, R. S. Quigley took possession of the spring with a 
view of utilizing it in the manufacture of salt. He erected a, huge 
frame building and brought machinery from Ohio. In order to get a 
greater water supply, he bored to a depth of 250 feet. The method 
of boring, as described by a, man who lived near the spring, is as 
follows : 

"A platform wheel was built and placed on a shaft in an inclined 
position. A yoke of steers were placed upon it and tied by the heads. 
The wheel was then started and the steers would keep tramping. 
This kept the wheel fuming horizontally and that furnished the power 
that did the boring." 

At the depth of 250 feet, Quigley struck water that contained 
little salt but much sulphur. This made the whole affair useless, and 
Quigley abandoned the place and moved away. 


Although milling was not done on a large scale, still it was very 
important from the standpoint of the settler. The first mill in the 
county was owned by John Shaw and was located at Gilead. The next 
mill of any importance was the one built by John Metz, in 1828, at 
the present site of Brussels. Both of these mills were operated by 

In 1829, Jacob Crader, Sr.,' built a water power mill at Gave 
Spring Hollow, near the present site of Oak Grove. The Indian Creek 
mill was built in the same year by Samuel Crader and was also oper- 
ated by waterpower. 

The importance of the mills to the settler is told by C. C. Squiers, 
a pioneer settler: 

"There were two or three corn crackers (sometimes called grist 
mills) and most of them were* run by water power, if the ponds did 
not dry up, which, however they did in the late summer and fall. 
Then the settlers had some disagreeable experiences. Many a poor 
man who had a family to provide for, would shell a little corn, put 
it in a sack, throw over his shoulder, and carry it from three to five 
miles to one of these corn crackers, only to learn after his arrival there 
that there was no water in the pond and the mill had shut down. The 
next thing the man would ask the miller, 'Have you any meal on hand 
that you can swap for some corn?' Of course the miller would swap 
and take corn, if he had any meal to spare, but likely as not he could 
not accommodate the man. In that case the man perhaps could do no 
better than take his corn to a temporary mortar and pound his corn 
so that he would have an imitation of meal." 



The first Calhoun bank to be established was the Bank of Calhoun 
County at Hardin. This bank was chartered as a private bank on 
December 19, 1898, and is was opened for business on February 22, 
1899. Elmer E. Williams was the Cashier and is still serving in that 
capacity. Aloys Bullier and Wm. Fisher have served as assistant 
cashiers. M. A. Kamp of Kampsville served as the first President of 
the Bank of Calhoun County, and he was succeeded by Stephen Mc- 
Donald of Hardin. F. A. Whiteside of Carrollton is serving as Pres- 
ident at the present time. 

From 1899 to 1907, the bank at Hardin was the only one in the 
county, but in the next year private banks were established in three 
other communities. E. E. Williams, the Cashier of the Bank of 
Calhoun County, was chosen to serve as manager of these three newly 
established banks. The following men were chosen to serve -as 
Cashiers of these banks: Kampsville, William Suhling; Batchtown, J. 
F. Tribble; and Brussels, Paul Zigrang. 

The Kampsville Bank was reorganized December 20, 1920. Charles 
Sutter was elected President, E. E. Williams, Vice-President, William 
Suhling appointed Cashier, and Harry Waldheuser as assistant Cash- 
ier. When the Batchtown Bank was reorganized and made a State 
Bank, E. E. Williams was elect President, and J. F. Tribble was re- 
tained as Cashier, with William Zigrang as assistant Cashier. E. E. 
Williams was also elected President of the Brussels Bank and retained 
as Manager. Paul Zigrang was retained as Cashier and George Geb- 
ben as assistant Cashier. 

The Bank of Hamburg was organized May 21, 1907, and the char- 
ter is dated October 2, 1907. The first officers of the bank were: 
J. G. Kinder, President; B. H. Williams, Vice-President; Frank Dirks- 
meyer, Secretary; and Spencer Waldron, Cashier. 

The Hamburg Bank opened for business on October 7, 1907, and 
closed January 28, 1932. The reason for closing was that the bank 
was carrying the farmers and apple growers, and the severe hail 
storm of July 23, 1931 ruined the crop to such an extent that the bank 
could not collect the notes. 

Spencer Waldron served the bank as its Cashier from the date of 
organization, and Eay De Long served as the assistant Cashier for 
eleven years. 

When the bank closed it had $108,000 on deposit, and loans that 
totaled $216,000. 


Social Life 

If we are to believe the letters written by the older inhabitants 
and tales related to us by our grandparents, the people in the olden 
days had many way to amuse themselves, and life was not the dreary 
existence in an isolated cabin, as we often allow ourselves to imagine 
it was. . DANCING 

The great amusement of our grandparents and great grandparents 
was dancing. One of the old inhabitants of the Civil War days said: 

"There were a few days of the year, New Year's Day, Washing- 
ton's Birthday, Fourth of July, and Christmas, that we set aside by 
both old and the young, as a day to be hallowed with merriment and 
pleasure. Usually on those days a grand ball would be given, and 
grand it was too. At the home of Antione DeGerlia's in a spacious 
and palatial hewed log house, on the spot where Paul Godar now lives, 
and at Hamburg at the the house of Ferdinand Wineland, the grand- 
est of the grand balls were given in those days, and were attended 
by the best people in the land; perfect order was maintained; nothing 
that would tend to mar the pleasure of the guests tolerated." 

"Dancing was a great sport", says another old settler, "I never 
attended but one ball and then only a few hours. The houses were 
too small to accommoddate the dancers, and those who were not 
dancing would stand in the yard around burning log heaps. Some- 
times there would be a general fight, and the girls would mix in the 
fight as well as the men, but 'Still the dance went on.'" 

Judge F. I. Bizaillion of Hardin said: "As to dancing, we had 
them two, three, or four times a week and sometimes on Sunday. 
Very often the county officials took part in our dances." Another 
pioneer who came to Illinois in 1839 "found fiddling and dancing the 
order of the day". 

Most of the dances were held in the homes of the settlers. One 
or two fidddlers and sometimes a third person with an accordian made 
the music. The type of ancing was what is now called "Square 

When a group of people came) together to do some work, they 
usually had a dance in the evening. If a man had a great number of 
logs to be moved, or a barn to be built of logs, he would invite from 
fifteen to thirty neighbors to help him. In the words of W. E. Barber 
an early settler, "It was hard dirty wrrk but it was given in a spirit 
of neighborly helpfullness and performed in the spirit of fun and 
frolic. As the forenoon wore on the noise was apt to increase, espec- 
ially if the whiskey jug was in evidence, as it usually was When the 
accommodations permitted, a dance would follow, in the evening. 


House raisings offered another opportunity to extend a helping hand, 
and to have a good time. In the same list may be placed corn-husk- 
ings andd brush-cuttings." 


A custom that has nearly disappeared is that of "Christmas 
Shooting" and "New Year Shooting". A north Calhoun pioneer de- 
scribed the custom as follows: 

"A crowd of men and boys would collect and form a company, 
armed with guns, bells, horns, anything that would make a noise, and 
then they would go from house to house through the whole neighbor- 
hoodd, ringing bells, blowing horns, >and firing guns in their march 
around the house, until at last they would be invited in, and after a 
social repast of apples, pies, doughnuts, etc., they would move on to 
the nearest neighbor, missing no one." As a general rule the people 
of the German Catholic communities did not go around in this manner 
on Christmas eve, due to the fact that it would interfere with their 
church duties on Christmas morning. But they did go around on New 
Year's eve, and cider, wine, and whiskey were usually included in the 
lists of refreshments that were served. 

The custom of going about on Christmas eve has died out in 
most places due to the fact that Churches and Communities have pro- 
grams for the children on that evening. But New Year Shooting is 
still practiced in Richwoods and Point Precincts. 

Another celebration that is somewhat similar is known as "Three 
Kings' Night", and is held the sixth of January. Three men of the 
community would mask and dress to disguise theii} identity, and in 
company with the other young men, would call at different homes of 
the community. Usually persons with some musical or vocal ability 
were chosen as "Kings", and they would sing or play at the homes 
of the people they visited. The same type of refreshments was served 
to the visitors as was served on New Year's eve, and it is said as the 
evening passed, the vocal and musical numbers increased both in vol- 
ume and quantity. This custom is usually linked with the German 
communities and was brought over from the Fatherland. Probably 
the only community that celebrated this day, in 1933, was Meppen. 

Nearly all accounts of the early days in Calhoun County mention 
the spelling school. As one writer in the Hardin neighborhood said, 
"I must not omit the good times we had at the log cabin raisings, log 
rollings, shooting matches, and so on, but the spelling school was the 
boss." Another said: "The singing and spelling schools and the debat- 
ing societies were the only forms of amusements of an intellectual 
character within the reach of most of the sections." 

One of the last of the spelling schools held in Hardin vicinity was 
held in 1916 or 1917. The pupils of the high school and upper grades 
spelled against some of the older people of the town, who had had 


experience in the spelling schools of the old days. Needless to say- 
that when .all of the young people were eliminated, a long line of "old 
timers" were still standing. 


Another form of amusement that was popular in the early days 
was sleighing. Every farmer had a large bob-sled, and during the 
winter months, it was in use much of the time. Trips to church and 
to the stores would be made in it, and in the evenings the young 
people would go to dances, parties or just for a ride. When the 
automobile was introduced, the sleds began to decrease in number. 

Fairs and picnics were held in the county from the earliest times. 
The Fourth of July was a favorite time for a picnic and celebration. 
One of the most famous of these was the Centennial celebration that 
was held in Hardin on July 4, 1876, ^on the lots just north of the 
present site of the Hardin High School building. It was at this cele- 
bration that John Lammy read his "History of Calhoun County". This 
was; an account of only a thousand words in length, but was very 
important not only because it was the first attempt to collect some 
material on the history of the county, but because its author had been 
an eye-witness to many of the events which he described, and had 
been personally acquainted with most of the early settlers. Several 
bands were organized before 1900, and they played at most of the 
picnics and fairs. A band was organized one summer at Jennings 
Grove, in Belleview Precinct, and a young man named William Cody, 
who was taking care of some cattle for a man in the neighborhood, 
joined the band and helped furnish music for a picnic. Cody went 
west that fall and later became famous in the western country. He 
was known to the people of the west as "Buffalo Bill". 

A county fair was organized, and the fair was held at Kampsville 
and sometimes at Hardin. During the last two years of its existence, 
it was held about a mile north of Hardin, just south of the mouth of 
the "Poor Farm Hollow". The last fair was held about the year 1910. 
The main reason reason for its failure was the lack of financial 


There were a number of baseball teams in the county in the 
nineties and much enthusiasm was shown for this sport. Another 
form of sport that was popular was that of horse racing. On Sunday 
afternoons groups of young men would congregate in different places 
and the afternoon would be spent in riding their horses up and down 
the roads. 

Skating was always popular and there few places in the county 
that was over a few miles from either of the rivers, or some bay or 
lake. On Sunday afternoons large crowds of both young people and 
adults would congregate. But, like sleighing, skating has lost much 
of its popularity in the county. 


Calhoun County In Politics 


The first election of any consequence in which the settlers of this 
county took part was the election of 1822, out of which grew the 
famous Hansen-Shaw election contest. This contested election attract- 
ed not only the interest of the state, but the nation, because of its 
connection with the slavery question. To Calhoun people it is even 
more interesting because John Shaw, one of the county's most influ- 
ential citizens was involved in the contest. 

On August 5, 1822, an election was held in Pike County (Calhoun 
was a part of Pike at the time) to elect a member to the General 
Assembly. All of the people who lived in the territory now called 
Calhoun had to vote at Coles Grove (now called Gilead). On the day 
of the election there was some difficulty about the election judges. 
Some of the people were opposed to some of the judges and had new 
ones appointed. The result was that there were two voting places at 
Coles Grove, and when the election was over* two sets of returns were 
sent to the County Clerk of Pike County. If he accepted one set, it 
would mean John Shaw was elected, and if he accepted the other set, 
Nicholas Hansen, Shaw's opponent, would be elected. 

The County Clerk chose the set favoring Nicholas Hansen and he 
was given the certificate of election. Shaw immediately contested 
the election, and one of the bitterest fights in Illinois history took 

John Shaw presented much legal evidence to show that he had 
been elected fairly and that he was entitled to the seat. The House 
disregarded this evidence -and decided upon Hansen, because they sakl 
Shaw had not notified him at an early enough date that he (Shaw) 
was going to contest the election. Chief Justice Reynolds of the 
Supreme Court of the State gave a decision on December 9, 1822 in 
which he favored the returns which were favorable to Hansen. 

But historians have disagreed as to the reason why John Shaw 
was kept out of the Legislature and the seat given to Hansen. The 
Legislature was closely balanced at the time and there were two 
important questions to be voted upon. One was the re-election of 
Jesse B. Thomas to the United States Senate and the other was the 
calling of a convention to revise the constitution of the state. Gov- 
ernor Thomas Ford made the following statement about the election: 

"Hansen would vote for Thomas, but Shaw would not; Shaw 
would vote for the convention, but Hansen would not. The slavery 
party had use for both of them, and determined to use one after the 
other. For this purpose they decided in favor of Hansen, admitted 


him to a seat, and with his vote, elected their United States Senator; 
and then toward the close of the session, by mere brute force and in 
the most barefaced manner, they reconsidered their former vote, 
turned Hansen out of his seat, and decided in favor of Shaw, and with 
his vote carried their resolution calling for a new convention." 

The newspapers took up the fight of the men, and the factions 
hurled charges and counter charges at each other. The papers of 
other parts of the country were interested because the slavery question 
was involved. The convention question was finally put to a vote of 
the people of the state and the proposition was defeated by a vote of 
6,640 to 4,972. This was the last organized attempt to introduce 
slavery into the state. 

In 1824 the same two rivals, John Shaw and Nicholas Hansen 
were again candidates for the office as member of the General As- 
sembly. According to the official vote Shaw received 165 votes and 
Hansen received but 83, yet Hensen was given the certificate of elec- 
tion. Shaw contested the election but the House of Representatives 
voted in favor of Hansen. In 1825 John Shaw and Levi Roberts were 
candidates for the office. Shaw received 118 votes to 112 for Roberts, 
but again the certificate of election was given to Shaw's opponent. 

Between the years 1926 and 1840 Calhoun had no representatives 
in the General Assembly, but this was due to no fault of the 1 people 
or any lack of interest on their part. Calhoun had been placed in the 
same election district with Greene County, and at that time there 
were about two thousand voters living in Greene County and only 
about two hundred in Calhoun. 

By the year 1840, Greene County had been divided and the elec- 
tion district now contained Greene, Jersey, and Calhoun. John 
McDonald, who had been the Sheriff of Calhoun County, lost Greene 
County in the race for Representative, but carried Jersey and Calhoun 
Ly a large enough majority to give him the victory. 

The Calhoun men who were elected to the General Assembly in 
the period that ended in 1860, were: 

John McDonald, 1840-1842; 1842-1844; 1844-1846. 

George Pattison, 1849-1850. 

William D. Hamilton, 1850-1852. 

Henry B Buckanan, 1852-1854. 

In the elctions to choose a man for the General Assembly, the 
politics of the candidate did not mean as much as it does today. The 
voters had an opportunity to meet the candidate personally and a man 
might run without saying what national political party he favored. 
But in the elections in which a president or governor was chosen, the 
party had more influence. To see the shift in the party affiliations 
it will be necessary to consider these contests. 

The first presidential election im which the Calhoun people took 
part after their separation from Pike County was the election of 


1828. In this election John Quiney Adams received 57 votes in the 
county to 42 votes for Andrew Jackson. By the next election Jackson 
had gained strength in the county and carried it over Henry Clay by 
a vote of 31 to 8. 

In 1834, an election was held,, in all of the counties of the state 
to choose a location for the state capital. In the election, Alton re- 
ceived all of the 158 votes cast in Calhoun County. It was in this 
election that the people of the state voted to have the capital moved 
to Alton, but the Legislature later disregarded the vote of the people 
•and chose Springfield, which had run third in the state vote. 

In the election of 1836 Van Buren on the Democratic ticket re- 
ceived 48 votes while the candidate on the new Whig ticket received 
53 votes. The Whig party gained strength in the county by the next 
election and in 1840 William Henry Harrison, their candidate, defeated 
Van Buren, the Democrat, by a vote of 213 to 133 

The Whig party lost their power by the election of 1844. The 
Democrat carried the county that year, and in every presidential elec- 
tion from 1844 down to 1920^ the Democratic presidential candidate 
has carried the county. 

In 1856, the new Republican party nominated Fremont for presi- 
dent. He received 70 votes in Calhoun, while Buckanan, the Demo- 
crat, received 391, and Fillmore, the American candidate, received 

Thus as: the first period of Calhoun political history closes, we 
might say that the people took an active interest in politics and were 
fairly successful in obtaining representation in the General Assembly 
considering the fact that they were usually in the same senatorial 
district with counties that had a larger population, which fact would 
give the candidates from these larger counties an advantage. 


To understand the feeling of the Calhoun people toward the Civi! 
War is somewhat difficult due to the fact that no newspapers were 
being published in the county at that time, and because most of the 
available writings of Calhoun residents living at that' time mention 
little about the conflict. 

In the first place there were never any slaves in the county at any 
time, although a few free negroes did live in the county as early as 
1840. In 1848, the people of the state voted! on a clause of the new 
constitution which would have prohibited slave owners from bringing 
slaves to the state and then setting them free. The clause carried in 
the state by a 5 to 2 majority, and in Calhoun by a 30 to 1 majority. 
This would lead us to believe that the people of Calhoun were more 
opposed to having negroes in Illinois that the other people in the 
state. But we can not be certain about their, attitude toward slavery 
in the south. 


The election of 1860 does not clear up the matter because of the 
advantage that Stephen A. Douglas had over Abraham Lincoln in so 
far as Calhoun County was concerned. Douglas had served for a 
number of terms as Congressman from the district of which Calhoun 
was a part, and was acquainted with many of the people and the 
political leaders of the county. Then, too, Douglas was with the 
party that had carried the county in several presidential elections 
previous to 1860, and had built up an organization that surpasses that 
of the new Republican party. The vote in this election was: 

Douglas (Democrat), 668 votes. 

Lincoln (Republican), 269 votes. 

Bell (Union), 66 votes. 

Breckinridge, 00 votes. 

When the Civil War broke out there were many men from the 
county that went to join the Union -army, but there were others who 
sympathized with the South. In 1903, C. C Squiers, one of the oldest 
men in the county at that time, wrote an accounl of conditions during 
the war. Mr. Squiers said, in part: 

"The name of copperhead was given to those that aided and 
abetted the southern cause, by discouraging enlistments, and writing 
to the soldiers in the army to desert, aiding materially the southern 
cause by giving such news and comfort to the enemy of the Union 
as would encourage and prolong the struggle. Such, I claim, is a fair 
description of the men that merited the name of copperhead in Cal- 
houn during the four years of our late war of the rebellion The 
bushwacker or guerilla, while professing to be a Democrat and a 
southern sympathizer, was in reality a highwayman, and in the steal- 
ing and robbing business for the booty there was in it, rather than 
for love of country or the love of principle. As evidence of their 
brigandism they came over from Missouri and made raids in Cal- 
houn in which they would steal horses, rob houses of money, blanket, 
quilts, wearing apparel, and provisions, regardless of the politics of 
the citizen they robbed. So this last character was considered an out- 
law. When one of these raids had been committed, which was always 
at night, the citizens would gather the next day and hunt them 

Another writer in speaking of Calhoun at the time of the Civil 
War, said: 

"Her position was peculiarly favorable to the numerous criminal 
element of the then doubtful Missouri Her isolated bluffs made a 
capital place for the bushwackers and horse-thieves. The main stage 
of operations was at the village of Hamburg." 

The war and the bushwackers did not seem to have had much 
effect upon the election of 1864. The county was carried by General 
George B. McClellan, Democratic candidate, over Abraham Lincoln, 
the Union or Republican candidate, by a vote of 562 to 311. In light 



of the facts mentioned concerning their attitude toward the war, and 
also because Lincoln was an Illinois man, one might have expected 
him to carry the county, but such was not the case. 

The following table will show the superior strength of the Demo- 
cratic Party in the Presidential elections in Calhoun County: 

1868 Votes 

Seymour (D) 702 

Grant (R) 393 

1872 Votes 

Greeley (D) 580 

Grant (R) 426 

1876 Votes 

Tilden (D) 900 

Hayes (R) 411 

1880 Votes 

Hancock (D) 505 

Garfield (R) 505 

Weaver (Greenback) 22 

1884 Votes 

Cleveland (D) 757 

Blaine (R) 524 

1888 Votes 

Cleveland (D) 939 

Harrison (R) 589 

1892 Votes 

Cleveland (D) 840 

Harrison (R) 563 

Weaver (People's) 146 

1896 Votes 

Bryan (D) 1162 

McKinley (R) 795 

Levering (Proh) 9 

1900 Votes 

Bryan (D) 1175 

McKinley (R) 873 

Wooley (Proh) 23 

1904 Votes 

Parker (D) 815 

Roosevelt (R) 730 

Swallow (Proh) 154 

1908 Votes 

Bryan (D) 905 

Taft (R) 735 

Chafin (Proh) 64 

1912 Votes 

Wilson (D) 602 

Taft (R) 375 

Roosevelt (Prog) 154 

1916 Votes 

Wilson (D) 1181 

Hughes (R) 1168 

1920 Votes 

Harding (R) 1367 

Cox (D) 703 

1924 Votes 

Coolidge (R) 1136 

Davis (D) 1115 

1928 Votes 

Hoover (R) 1594 

Smith (D) 1551 

Thomah (Soc) 31 

1932 Votes 

Roosevelt (D) 2229 

Hoover (R) 1239 

Thomas (Soc) 29 

Reynolds (Soc-Lab) 4 

Upham (Proh) 3 

In the period of 1864 to 1902, Calhoun was well represented in 
the General Assembly. They were represented in nearly every session 
while in the 36th Assembly, two Calhoun men were serving. The 
Calhoun men who served in the General Assembly after 1860, were: 

John McDonald, 1864-1866 24th Assembly 

Thos. B. Fuller, 1868-1870 26th Assembly 

Stephen G. Lewis, 1872-1874 28th Assembly 

Jos. S. Harvey, 1874-1876 29th Assembly 

R. J. Hall, 1876-1878 30th Assembly 

Jas. H. Pleasant, 1878-1880 31st Assembly 

F. M, Greathouse, 1882-1884, Democrat 33rd Assembly 

Peter C. Barry, 1884-1886, Democrat 34th Assembly 

John McNabb, 1886-1888, Democrat 35th Assembly 


John McDonald, 1888-1890, Democrat 36th Assembly 

George B. Childs, 1890-1890, Republican....36th Assembly 

Ernest Meyer, 1890-1892, Democrat 37th Assembly 

Ernest Meyer, 1892-1893, Democrat 38th Assembly 

William Mortland, 1893-1894, Democrat....38th Assembly 

Chas. L Wood, 1896-1898, Republican 40th Assembly 

George L. Aderton, 1900-1902, Republican..42nd Assembly 

Thos. D. Bare, 1904-1906, Republican Senate 

Thos, D. Bare, 1906-1908, Republican Senate 

In 1900, Thomas Jefferson Selby, the State's Attorney of Calhoun, 
was elected to the United States House of Representatives. He served 
one term, and he had the distinction of being the only Calhoun man 
to serve as a member of Congress. He was also the last man to rep- 
resent the old Sixteenth Congressional Ditrict. In 19C2 Calhoun was 
placed in the Twentieth District and Henry T. Rainey of Carrollton 
was elected as the Representative After his term in Congress, Mr. 
Selby returned to his home in Hardin,, was elected State's Attorney, 
and continued to serve in that office until his death in 1917. 

From the standpoint of local elections, Calhoun has usually been 
Democratic since the Civil War. Occasionally a Republican would be 
elected, but it would be the exception. A prominent attorney of Har- 
din, in the early days, was said to have advised a new voter in this 
manner: "Young man, when you vote, always vote the Republican 
ticket, but if you run for office, run on the Democratic ticket." In 
the election of 1920, the Republican Party captured most of the 
county offices, but in the election of 1928 the Democrats again gained 
a majority of the county offices The results of the elections of 1930 
and 1932 show that the Democrats have an advantage of 150 to 300 
votes in the county elections. 


A great influence m politics that is sometimes overlooked is that 
of the newspaper. The first newspaper to be established in Hardin 
was the "Calhoun County Union", the first issue appeared about April 
1, 1861 with Josiah Woodward as editor. The paper was still being 
published in 1862, but we have no record of how long publication 

In 1870, the "Independent", a Democratic paper, was established 
in Hardin. Since two other papers were started soon after this date, 
it is likely that this paper lasted but a short time. 

The "Calhoun County Democrat" was established in 1871 and con- 
tinued until 1876 Albert G. Ansell was the editor and publisher. It 
was a Republican paper. 

The "Calhoun Herald" was started in 1872 by a stock company, 
with John Lammy as editor. In 1876 the plant was sold to Argust 
and Keating, and in 1879 Greathouse and Argust were the editors 
and publishers. James McNabb was the editor from 1880 to 1886. 


He sold the paper to T. J. Selby, who served as editor until 1890. 
From 1890 to 1894 John D. Rose was the editor and publisher. H. M. 
Cornick was in charge of the paper in 1894 and 1895. Charles Lamar 
was the editor from 1895 to 1902. H, M. Cornich, publisher of the 
"Calhoun Times", established) in 1901, bought the "Herald" and com- 
bined the papers as the "Calhoun Herald-Times".. In 1903 Charles 
Lamar bought the entire plant, changed the name back to "Calhoun 
Herald" and continued as editor and publisher. After Mr. Lamar's 
death in 1930, the "Herald" was taken over by his son, C. Fred Lamar, 
whois the editor and publisher at the present time. The "Herald" is 
a Democratic paper. 

In 1894, Thomas D. Bare purchased the "Calhoun Leader", which 
had been established sometime before in Hardin. He continued to 
edit this paper until 1898, when he sold it. In 1901, George B, Childs 
and Mr. Bare established the "Calhoun Republican". In 1902, Bare 
purchased his partner's interest and continued to edit the paper until 
about 1910. The paper was taken over by a stock company and 
Charles Temple acted as the editor until it was discontinued in 1915. 

On the first day of April, 1915, the first issue of the "Calhoun 
News" appeared. The editors and publishers were G. C. Campbell 
and A. B. Greathouse. The News is an Independent paper. 

All of the papers that have been mentioned were published in 
Hardin, the county seat. Several other newspapers were started in 
ether towns in the county, but most of them lasted but a short time, 
One of the most successful of these was the Batchtown "Pilot", which 
was started in 1880 by John J. Smith. In 1891, he was still publish- 
ing the paper. 

Papers were also established in Kampsville, Hamburg and Brus- 
sels. None of these gained a wide circulation and were soon aban- 

As will be noticed in the accounts of the different papers, the 
ownership of the paper frequently changed, and none of the men who 
served as editors in the early days were men who had been trained 
in the newspaper work.. Most of them were men who had taught 
school for awhile or had held some political office and then decided 
to try their hand at newspaper work. Since most of the men were 
interested in politics, they devoted a considerable part of their paper 
to political discussion. The political editorial that is now found in 
the city papers was then found) in the county papers. This did much 
to educate the people on public questions and the attacks of the 
editors of opposing parties did much to keep the county officials of 
the times from using their offices as a means for personal gain. 




The last twenty years have brought a remarkable change in the 
county in many ways. In 1913 there were so few automobiles in the 
county that they affected it to a small degree. The trucks, hardroads, 
bridges, high schools, and the World War were still to come. The 
Calhoun of 1913 differed very little from the Calhoun of 1903 or 1893. 
Some of the events or improvements that caused the great change in 
the twenty years will be discussed. 


A glance at the tables given in the chapter on population will 
show one that there were more people in the county who were of Ger- 
man descent than all of the other nationalities combined. But when 
the United States entered the World War, no more patriotic group of 
men and women were to be found in any part of the nation. All 
worked together regardless of nationality, religion, wealth, or position 
to encourage enlistments, aid in the sale of bonds and stamps, ar.d to 
get funds for the different relief organizations. Calhoun has a record 
to which her citizens can point with pride. 


April 29, 1917 — The first Hardin men to leave to join the army 
were: Paul Aderton, Curtis Dixon, Herbert Rice, Daniel Athy, and 
Elmer DeLaney. Athy and DeLaney failed to pass the physical exam- 
ination, and returned to Hardin. Homer Hunt left Hardin on the 
same day and enlisted in the navy. 

May 10, 1917 — The following men leave Kampsville to enlist in 
the army: Arthur Kamp, Claude Armstrong, Clyde Walstor, Frank 
Vetter, John Ritter, Harry Schumann, Obie Powell, and A D. 

June 5 — First Registration Day. All Calhoun men betweer the 
ages of twenty-one and thirty-one years register in their home 
elecion precincts. 

June 7 — Results of the registration show a total of 702 men. 
Point leads with 153 persons registering, Hamburg is second with 
116, and Hardin third with 107. 

June 14 — Victor Miller and Charles Pregaldin leave Hardin to 

July 19 — Fred Laird, W. T. Jones, and Lee Emerick leave Ham- 
burg to join the army. 

July 26 — Draft begins. Ninety seven Calhoun men drawn into 
the army and were accepted by the County Board. 

August 9 — Dr. Z, D. Lumley offered his services to the army and 


was accepted. Myrtle Dierking, a trained nurse, offered her services 
to the Red Cross and was accepted. 

September 13 — Three men, representing 5% of Calhoun's quota 
under the selective draft, left for the army. They were: Andy Mc- 
Donald of Hardin, Glenn Nevius of Kampsville, and Henry C. Smith 
of Hamburg. They were sent to Camp Taylor, Kentucky. 

September 21 — Twenty-eight men leave for camp. 

October 6 — Fifteen more men leave for training camp. 

January 24, 1918 — Registration day for Alien enemies. 

January 24 — Carl Gordon appointed Food Administrator for the 

Febiuary 28 — Twenty-seven men leave for Camp Taylor. 

April 29 — Nineteen men leave for Camp Dix, N. J. 

May 23 — Forty men leave for Camp Gordon, Georgia. 

June 20 — Forty-three leave for camp during the entire month. 

August 1 — Forty-one men leave. 

September 5 — Calhoun's quota of 100 men leave for Camp Grant. 

According to the list given in the county papers, 323 drafted men 
left the county for the camps. This list is not accurate as some might 
not have been listed, and then there were men who failed to pass the 
physical examination .and returned to their homes. On September 12, 
all men between the ages of 18 and 45 registered. 


There are no official records in the county that will show the 
names of the men who lost their lives. The list below was made 
after talking to ex-service men from different parts of the county 
and after reading copies of the Calhoun Herald and the Calhoun 
News that were published in the period of the war. 

Frank Pohlman, Brussels, (killed in action). 

Oscar Ha'ug, Brussels, (killed in action). 

Orville Sidwell, Belleview, (killed in action). 

Henry Schneider, Michael, (died from illness contracted in camp). 

Frank Zipprick, Michael, (died in camp). 

Joseph Topmeyer, Deer Plain, (died in cam). 

Ray Mager, Batch town (died in camp). 

Strawther Harrel, Batchtown, (died in camp). 

M. Shopper, Brussels, (died in camp). 

Gerherd Hendricks, Brussels, (died in camp). 

Clarence Richey, Belleview, (died in camp). 

Jos. S. Moses, Brussels, (died in camp). 

John Meyer, Kampsville. 


This list will be even more incomplete because of the fact that 


so many of the Calhoun men failed to have their discharge papers 
recorded at the office of the Circuit Clerk. The county papers and the 
memory of some of the soldiers must be depended upon in making a 
list of the wounded. 

Aderton, Paul (wounded). 

Bellm, William (wounded). 

Brannon, Walter (wounded). 

Crader, Slocum (wounded). 

Dixon, J, L. (crippled). 

Emerick, Lee (gassed). 

Eschback, Charles (wounded). 

Hagen, Charles M. (wounded). 

Holmes, Harry (wounded). ' 

Ingersol, Ralph (wounded). 

Johnson, J. A. (wounded). 

Kelley, Edm'und (wounded). 

Klass, W. (wounded). 

Klemme, George (wounded). 

Kreid, Charles (wounded). 

Miller, Peter (wounded). 

Osborne, Clifford (crippled). 

Presley, George M. (wounded). l 

Snider, George (wounded). 


The first Liberty Loan drive was in June 1917. Calhoun's quota 
was $25,000 and the entire amount was subscribed by the banks of 
the county. 

The Second Liberty Loan drive was in November of the same 
year. This time the quota of Calhoun was placed at $76,000. The 
drive was oversubscribed by $66,550. 

It was in the Third Liberty Loan drive that Calhon made the best 
showing; Although the citizens and the banks were asked to buy only 
$150,000 worth of the bonds, they bought more than twice the amount. 
The total of the sale was $304,000. 

In October of 1918 the county took part in a drive to raise $313,- 
000. Again the county oversubscribed her quota. 

The Victory Loan drive was held in the spring of 1919, a number 
of months after the signing of the Armistice. Calhoun's q'uota was 
$168,000 and the people responded by buying bonds to the amount of 


Calhoun's record in these drives is remarkable, when we consider 
the fact that there were counties in this state and all other states that 
failed to get the amount that was asked for in the different drives. 



On May 30, 1918 the different precincts of the county were asked 
to raise amounts that ranged from $600 in the smaller precincts to 
$1,000 in the larger ones. 

Red Cross sales were held in each of the precincts. Most of the 
people of the precinct would donate articles or produce that would 
be sold at a public auction. At Batchtown over $2,000 was taken in 
at the sale, and on July 4th, there were about three thousand people 
at the sale held at Brussels. Over $6,000 was made and turned over 
to the Red Cross. 

Besides aiding the Red Cross, the people of the county contrib- 
uted in a liberal manner to the Salvation Army, Y. M. C. A., Knights 
of Columbus, and other organiz>ations that were doing relief work 
among the soldiers. 


In the twenty-year period, 1913 to 1933, there were many changes 
in the means of transportation. In the first half of the period, the 
steamboats were carrying most of the freight to and from the county. 
But the building of the hard road, the bridge, the C. and A. Railroad 
to East Hardin, and the introduction of the trucks meant the down- 
fall of the steamboats. 

In 1924, the Chicago and Alton Railroad completed the branch 
line to East Hardin. Daily service was started between East Hardin 
and Carlinville. But the freight department was more important to 
Calhoun people as it gave the apple growers of the central part of 
the county, access to Chicago -and eastern markets. The passenger 
service was discontinued in 1931. 

The Hardin-Kampsville and the Hardin-Jerseyville hard roads 
were each completed in 1927. 

The people of Calhoun had been talking about a bridge for many 
years. As early as January 21, 1919 an article appeared in the Cal- 
houn News telling of the advantages of a bridge. It was not until the 
completion of the hard road to Jerseyville, that most of the citizens 
gave serious attention to the matter. It was through the untiring 
efforts of the business men of Hardin and some other communities 
that the legislators became interested in the matter, and finally 
•appropriated sufficient sums for its construction, 

The bridge was completed and dedicated on Thursday, July 23, 
1931.. The Governor of Illinois, Louis L. Emmerson, together with 
many prominent officials, attended the dedication ceremony. The 
bridge was named the "Joe Page Bridge", in honor of Joseph M. Page, 
editor of the Jersey County Democrat for the past fifty years. 


The bridge is the longest in the state, being 1,728 feet in length. 
The lift span is 308 feet and nine inches, the largest lift span of this 
type in the world. It is operated by two motors of fifty horsepower 
each, and is equipped with a gasoline engine to use in case of emer- 
gency. Approximately five million pounds of steel were used in the 
construction of the bridge, and the concrete work contains about 9,000 
cubic yards. 

Before the end of the present year, the hard road from Kamps- 
ville to Milton, Pike County, will be completed. Other roads and 
bridges are being planned. The day of isolation and slow, uncertain 
travel seems to be a thing of the past. 




1673 — August Marquette- Joliet Expedition land and spend 

night in what is now Calhoun County. 

1680 — November Indian massacre takes place near the pres- 
ent site of the Deer Plain Ferry, in Point 
Precinct. Women and children of the Illi- 
nois tribe killed by Iroquois. 

— November LaSalle and companions stop at the site of 

the massacre on the day following its oc- 

1800 — Federal government expedition passes 

through what is now Calhoun County. 

1801 — February 3 Territory now included in Calhoun County 

made a part of St. Clair County, Indiana 

1811 — The first permanent settler, O'Neal, arrives 

•and settles several miles above the present 
site of the Golden Eagle Ferry. 

Twenty French families living at Cap au 


1812 — May 6 Congress passes an act giving 160 acres of 

land to all who enlist in the army. Land 
between the Illinois and the Mississippi 
Rivers set apart and was known as the 
"Military Lands". Territory now included 
in Calhoun was a part of this tract. 

— September 14 Territory now incruded in Calhoun made a 

part of Madison County, Illinois Territory. 

1813 — Band of northern Illinois Indians appear 

near Cap au Gris (southern Calhoun). At- 
tack soldiers from Missouri fort. 

1814 — Indians again appear in southern Calhoun. 

Black Hawk accompanies Indians. Attack 
settlers and soldiers in Missouri No evi- 
dence of attack on any settlers in what is 
now Calhoun. 

1819 — Ebenezer Smith operates a ferry across the 

Illinois River about five miles below present 

site of Hardin. 

Ebenezer Smith plants first orchard on farm 

below Hardin. 
1821 — January 21 Territory now included in Calhoun County 

become a part of Pike County. Coles Grove 

(now Gilead) made the county seat. 
— May 23 First probate Court to be held north or 

west of Illinois River held at Coles Grove. 


— October 1 First Circuit Court north or west of the 

Illinois held at Coles Grove, Judge John 
Reynolds presiding. 

John, Nathannial, and Comfort Shaw arrive 

in the county. 

1822 — Johnn Mettz settles at the present site of 


, John Shaw and Nicholas Hansen each claim 

to have been elected to the State Legisla- 
ture. Contested election. Hansen seated 
Joshua Twichell -and family arrive at Coles 

Hansen removed from the Legislature and 

his seat given to John Shaw. 

1823 — John Mozier arrives and settles at the pres- 
ent site of Mozier Landing. 

1825 — January 10 The lower part of Pike County is made into 

a separate county and is named "Calhoun". 
George W. Allen and Gershom Flagg mee. 
and selected Coles Grove as the county 
seat of Calhoun 

— January 27 In a report to the County Commissioners, 

Allen and Flagg recommend Coles Grove 
as the county seat and suggest that its 
name be changed to Gilead. 

■ — January 31 John Shaw donates 80 acres of land to the 

county. He also gives 12 lots in Gilead as 
a place where the county buildings might 
be erected. 

— February 2 County officials elected. 

— March 8 First meeting of the County Commissioners 

at Gilead. 

— March 9 John Shaw, Nathanial Shaw, Pendleton 

Lamb, Gigelow C. Fenton, and Levi Roberts 
recommended to the governor as suitable 
persons to fill the office of Justice of the 
Peace for Calhoun County. 

— March 24 First marriage license issued. Samuel 

Cresswell and Eliza Ann Hewitt, the con- 
tracting parties 
Contract let to build the jail at Gilead. 

1826— John Bolter, John Mozier, and Amos Ferris 

elected County Commissioners. 

1827 — September 14 Nathanial Shaw appointed County Treas- 

1828 — April 14 Nathanial Shaw appointed County Treas- 
urer for coming year. 

Ebenezer Smith, Robert Erwin, and William 

Mettz, County Commissioners. 

John Mettz starts a water-power corn mill 

at the present site of Brussels. 


1829 — Jacob Crader, Sr., builds water-power mill 

at Cave Spring Hollow. Samuel Crader 
builds mill at Indian Creek. 

First frame dwelling erected by Major Rob- 
erts near the present site of Brussels. 

Two of the first schools of the county are 

in operation. One is Bethel School, west of 
present site of Bruseels, aria 1 the other is 
Point Pleasant, several miles south of same 

1830 — First census of the county taken. Popula- 
tion, 1090. 

1831 — March 9 Nathanial Shaw appointed Assessor and 


- Government report shows presence of post 

offices at Gilead, Hamburg, and Belleview. 

The "Utility", a steamboat from St. Louis, 

visits TwiehelFs Landing. First steamboat 
to visit Calhoun. 

1832 — December 3 John McDonald, Nathanial Shaw, and Rob- 
ert W. Irwin elected County Commissioners. 

New brick court house completed at Gilead. 

Cost, $1,600. 

1833 — March 4 John Bolter given license to operate ferry 

across the Mississippi River at Little Cap 

au Gris. 

John Stark given license to run ferry across 

the Mississippi River at Clarksville. 

Dr. William Terry given license to sell 

goods for one year. 

A company was organized to dig a canal 

across Calhoun. To be located several 

miles below the present site of Hardin. 

The first recorded wheat raised in Calhoun. 

1834 — September ..Election returns of this year show_that there 

were four precincts in the county, namely: 
Belleview, Gilead, Illinois, and Cap au Gris. 

1835 — March 5 John Shaw given license to sell goods for 

one year. License fee, $5.00. 

— September 9 Contract let to build new jail at Gilead. 

Contract awarded to John Huff. To receive 

R S. Quigley tries to manufacture salt at 

the salt spring at Gilead. Machinery from 
Ohio. Plan fails. 

1836 — June 6 John Shaw appointed to act as special com- 
missioner and agent for the inhabitants of 
the county to sell section 16, which had been 
given to each county for school purposes. 

I — March 8 John Shaw given license to run ferry across 

river at Hamburg. 


1839 — March 8 Commissioners report shows presence of an 

indentured servant in the county. 

■ — June 3 Carlin Precinct formed from the north part 

of Illinois Precinct. The Beeman ferry- 
house was designated as a place where elec- 
tions were to be held. The precinct was 
named after Thomas Carlin, Governor of 

1840 — March 3 John and William Beeman given license to 

operate ferry across the Illinois River at 
tneir place of residence in Carlin Precinct 

Jacob Crader, Sr., given license to operate 
ferry across the Illinois River. 

— March 5 Edmund Morris and Cordelia McCoy given 

license to operate stores in Hamburg. 

— March 7 0. W. Bacon appointed School Commissioner 

and agent for the school funds. 

— June 4 Peter Durham appointed to take the census 

of the county. 

1841 — September County Commissioners are Benjamin Childs, 

Alexander Hemphill, and Elias Mettz. 

1842 — June 8 John Shaw removed from office as County 

Treasurer for failure to pay orders or to 

settle with the court. 

Abel Haper appointed County Treasurer. 

O'Neal, the first settler in the county, dies 

at his home near Golden Eagle. 
1845 — June 4 Bids asked for a new jail at Gilead. 

First grain cradle to be used in Calhoun on 

the farm of Jacob Crader, Sr., about two 
miles above the present site of Michael. 

1846 — First threshing machine in Galhoun was 

used on the farm of Henry Bechdoldt, north 
of present site of Michael. 
, William Beeman, one of the County Com- 
missioners dies. James Guy appointed to 
serve as County Commissioner. 

1847 — January ..Court house at Gilead destroyed by fire. All 

records appear to have been saved. 

1847 — January 18 Commissioners rent a room from Daniel T 

Simpson as a place to hold court. Talk of 
rebuilding court house at Gilead. 

— February 23 Commissioners meet and pass resolution to 

relocate the county seat. They select Ham- 
burg as a temporary meeting place. 

— March 15 Commissioners meet at Hamburg. 

— March 16 The following persons were granted licenses 

to operate ferrys: Stephen Farrow, Mary 
Ann Bushnell, William Chase, John Jones, 
and Frank Webster. 


— March 18 Commissioners select tfie store building, 

that had been used by John Shaw, as a 
meeting place. 

— August 12 People of Hamburg present petition asking 

Commissioners to refrain from moving the 
county seat to Childs' Landing. 

— September 7 The name of the new county seat selected 

by the County Commissioners was changed 
from Childs' Landing to "Hardin". It was 
named in honor of Col. John Hardin of 
Morgan County who was killed in the Mex- 
ican War, in 1847. 

September 8 — Commissioners meet for the last time in 


— December 6 The County Commissioners met for the first 

time at Hardin. 

Contract let to build a court house at Har- 
din. Cost to be $1,990. 

— October 14 Sale of town lots in Hardin. Six and twelve 

months credit given. 

1848 — March 8 Re-organization of the precincts of the 

county. The precincts after this date will 
be Point, Gilead, 'Hardin. Hamburg, Carlin, 
and Belleview. 
Catholics in the southern part of the coun- 
ty build a frame church at the present site 
of Brussels This was the first Catholic 
Church in the county. 

Point, Hardin and Hamburg precincts or- 

— September Contractor William D. Hamilton notifies the 

Commissioners that he has completed the 
court house.. 

Post office established at Hardin. Benjamin 

F. Childs appointed first postmaster. 

1849 Bids asked for building of jail at Hardin. 

Post office transferred from Milan to Deer 


1850 Work on jail completed. Cost was $1,275. 

1851 — March 7 William Hamilton appointed special agent 

to inspect farms which might be purchased 
by the county for the establishment of a 
county farm. 

1852 September 7 Richwoods Precinct formed. School house 

of District No. 1 chosen for voting place. 
Carlin Precinct reduced in size. 
Lower half of Carlin Precinct made into new 
precinct, called Crater Precinct. Named in 
honor of Jacob Crader, Sr., the first settler 
in precinct. Home of Jacob Crader selected 
as official voting place. 


1860 — June 5 A committee examined a number of farms 

with the idea of selectinng one as the county 
farm. Buy farm from B. F. Childs for 

1862 — December 3 ............Daniel J. Kennedy given job as keeper "of 

'the county farm. 


977.385C22H COM